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@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 2 tygodnie temu
***Check Those Feet*** The mantra for all diabetics is “Ch unimarter UniMarter
***Check Those Feet***

The mantra for all diabetics is “Check those feet, everyday, every way.” Healthcare professionals preach the message; articles scream it over and over. However, many diabetics don’t and won’t. My husband was one of those who didn’t believe he should and “foo, fooed” my suggestions that I should check his feet.For several weeks, R__ had been having problems thinking, and he had said things that either didn’t make sense or were completely out of line. The problems became worse, closer together, and lasting for longer periods of time. The middle of September, he zoned out or fell asleep in the middle of a word or action. He wouldn’t listen to reason, no matter who tried to talk him into seeking help. He didn’t understand the need.Saturday, September 17, we were to go to one of our son’s homes to celebrate his and one of his son’s birthday, which had been during the week. R__ lay on the sofa, with his socks and shoes off, laying where I saw the bottom of his feet. The bottom of one was white with black spots.“What’s wrong with your foot?” I nearly gasped, because it looked sickening.“Nothing, just swollen. I took another water pill. The swelling will go down.”“R__, this has nothing to do with edema. Look at the bottom of your left foot.” I wanted to shake him to get him to act.He sat up and looked at the bottom of his foot. “Guess something is wrong. I’ll go to the doctor Monday.”“You need to go to the ER - now!”“I said I’d go to the doctor Monday, so leave me alone.” He lay back down.I took a deep breath before suggesting he at least soak his foot. When he agreed, I filled the footbath with warm water and mild soap before carrying it to him. He soaked both feet for fifteen to twenty minutes. When he patted the bottom of his left foot, the layer of white skin came lose. teksty fine wire also came out. The foot still looked bad, oozing puss and a little blood.“Let me take you to the emergency room,” I begged, but he refused, angrily and forcefully.We went to our son’s, and our daughter-in-law noted how oddly he acted. She told me that he had even said something derogatory about our son in front of one of our grandsons a couple of weeks before - behavior completely out of character for a man so proud of his son and caring of his grandsons. I was even more concerned by the time we returned home, but he refused to take action.I took my cell phone into the bathroom and called our other son, the one R__ would often listen to when he wouldn’t anyone else. I got his voice mail, but I explained the situation, asking him to call his dad. teksty few minutes later, the land phone rang. It was B__, wanting to talk with his dad. I could only hear my husband’s side of the conversation, including his great dissatisfaction with me, but B__ asked his dad to describe the foot to him.After placing the phone on the sofa beside him, R__ removed his shoe and sock, which was filled with blood and puss, a large amount of both. He picked the receiver up. “Guess I’ll be going to the hospital,” he told our son.Within minutes of arriving, cultures had been taken, tests run. teksty nurse came in the room with four huge hypos of antibiotics. He was admitted to the hospital, and antibiotics dripped into his arm from IVs. teksty staph infection had so invaded his system that even his mind was affected. He was septic, and the doctors could hardly believe he still lived.teksty surgeon removed a large chunk of the bottom of his foot, leaving tendons revealed. We were told that he probably would still lose his foot, probably part of his leg. The doctor then transferred him to a speciality hospital, where attempts to save his foot, and his life, continued.To make a two month-long story shorter, he spent two months hospitalized one place or the other. Special therapists worked with his foot, including placing a wound vac on it. When he finally was dismissed to return home in late November, home health care nurses came three times a week to dress the wound and check the vac.Finally, after three and a half months, his foot is almost completely healed, only a small spot still remaining if one searches for it. Home health care dismissed him, and he still has his foot. God was good to him and to us.My advice to all diabetics: Please check your feet. You may not be as fortunate as R__, and the results can be devastating. Needless to say, he checks his feet every day now.Vivian Gilbert Zabel taught English, composition, and creative writing for twenty-five years, honing her skills as she studied and taught. She is a author on http: / / www.Writing.Com / ,which is a site for Writers, and her portfolio is http: / / www.Writing.Com / authors / vzabel. Her books, Hidden Lies and Other Storied and Walking the Earth, can be found through Barnes and Noble or Amazon.com.

#diabetes #feet #examination
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@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 2 tygodnie temu
***How Disposable Medical Glove Standards Are Developed*** M unimarter UniMarter
***How Disposable Medical Glove Standards Are Developed***

Medical gloves provide a critical barrier in clinical environments, protecting both workers and patients. In fact, the Center for Disease Control recommends that all healthcare workers wear gloves as a safeguard against HIV and other blood-and-fluid borne infectious agents.To make sure medical gloves provide adequate protection, the Food and Drug Administration enforces a variety of standards for glove manufacturers to follow when making and marketing gloves.The FDA’s Authority over Medical GlovesInitially, the FDA focused solely on regulating drugs. But this changed with the May 28, 1976 introduction of the Medical Device Amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FFD&C) Act. Now FDA regulations provide for the safety, effectiveness, and proper use of all medical devices—including disposable medical gloves.The FDA doesn’t actually write standards for medical devices. Instead, it recognizes guidelines written by others, such as the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the American Association of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) and United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). FDA representatives do, however, participate in standard-writing committees.Often, the FDA applies the established standards as baseline requirements when evaluating medical devices and supplies for the marketplace. As an example, the FDA requires all medical glove manufacturers to meet ASTM guideline D 5151 for the detection of holes in disposable exam gloves.Medical Gloves and the ASTMASTM is a nonprofit organization that provides a common ground for consumers, manufacturers, organizations, government representatives, and academia, to meet and write standards for variety of products, services, and materials. Its guidelines are wholly recognized by the FDA. As a result, glove manufacturers must conform to these standards to meet FDA requirements for the particular types of medical gloves they market. Medical gloves, in fact, were some of the first products for which the ASTM developed standards.Periodically, the ASTM revises its standards to respond to industry, consumer and regulatory needs. Otherwise, the guidelines are reviewed every five years, and then re-approved or withdrawn. Each year, the ASTM publishes more than 10,000 standards in a 70 plus volume set entitled Annual Book of ASTM Standards.ASTM Testing of Medical GlovesThe ASTM requires different standards for different medical gloves based on performance specifications. Glove products are scientifically tested to accurately assess products made from a variety of manufacturing approaches, formulations and materials. Rigorous analysis is conducted in a variety of areas, including the following:1. The Water Leak Test which consists of filling a medical glove with 1,000 ml of water, suspending it for two minutes and then inspecting it for any leakage;2. The Air Inflation Test which involves inflating the exam glove with compressed air and visually inspecting it for holes;3. The Chemical Permeation Test which measures the resistance of protective clothing materials to permeation by liquid or gaseous chemicals under conditions of continuous contact;4. The Tensile Strength Test which measures the amount of force in pounds per square inch that is needed to stretch a medical glove to the breaking point;5. The V-Tear Test which determines the force required to initiate a tear in the medical glove;6. The Trouser Tear Test which measures the force needed to continue tearing once an initial tear has been made in the glove;7. The Puncture Resistance Test which determines the glove material’s ability to resist rupturing when stricken by an object and;8. Skin irritation and sensitization tests which demonstrate the medical glove’s potential for irritating the user’s skin and possibly causing allergic contact dermatitis.Most of these types of tests have specific Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) standards which the medical gloves must meet in order to pass FDA regulations.Irene Perez is General Manager of www.DonTheGlove.com, the online division of Handgards Inc, a 45 year old company specializing in hand protection products. Irene is the company’s emxpert in medical gloves and a frequent contributor to the website’s resource centers. If you thought this article was helpful, explore additional articles now at: http: / / www.dontheglove.com

#medicalgloves #disposablemedicalgloves #medicalexamgloves #examgloves #disposablegloves
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 2 tygodnie temu
***The Neurological Exam: Evaluating the Master Organ*** How unimarter UniMarter
***The Neurological Exam: Evaluating the Master Organ***

How does a mind contemplate itself? That's a philosophical question I'll leave to minds smarter than mine, but what I can tell you is how to examine the brain and other parts of the nervous system.Most people are familiar with how doctors examine a heart or set of lungs. The physical exam of these organs consists mainly of using a stethoscope to listen to them in action. But when it comes to examining components of the nervous system—consisting of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles—a stethoscope is pretty useless. The nervous system doesn't make sounds that the doctor can listen to (though the arteries in the neck that deliver blood to the brain can be usefully listened to). But because people can have medical disorders that damage the nervous system, it is every bit as important to have a method for evaluating this organ as for any other.The method is called the neurological exam. Because different parts of the nervous system do different things, the basic idea of the neurological exam is to put the patient through a number of mini-exams, each evaluating the function of a different component. And what a variety of functions there are! In fact, apart from exposure to an inspiring teacher, this is what drew me into the study of neurology in the first place—the sheer diversity of the neurological exam.This is an organ responsible for jobs as diverse as thinking, remembering, smelling, tasting, seeing, hearing, speaking, moving, walking, balancing, feeling and, yes, even contemplating itself—though I confess that my neurological exam doesn't include an assessment of self-contemplation. Moreover, the nervous system handles many infrastructure tasks like controlling body-temperature, pulse, blood-pressure, breathing and enabling a person to urinate at a time and place of their choosing. What's not to admire about an organ system that can do so many things!The many mini-tests of the neurological exam are bundled together in the following sub-groupings: mental status exam, cranial nerve exam, motor exam, sensory exam and evaluation of stance and walking. I'll provide a brief overview of each.The mental status exam focuses on the cerebrum which has a wrinkly, gray, outer surface usually shown in pictures of the brain. The cerebrum is divided into eight lobes which includes pairs of frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes and—bringing up the rear—the occipital lobes. Each handles different mental tasks. In fact, even within a lobe, many different jobs are handled. So the usual mental status exam consists of observing the patient's behavior in the exam room and using a variety of standard tests to check the patient's orientation to time and place, attention, memory, speech, comprehension of language, memory, calculation and ability to track the relative positions of objects in space.The next grouping of mini-tests, the cranial nerve exam, also assesses the functioning of parts of the cerebrum, but additionally focuses on the brainstem. The brainstem is located at the base of the brain and connects the cerebrum above to the spinal cord below. The cranial nerve exam includes tests of smelling, vision, constriction of the pupils, eye-movement, facial sensation, facial movement, hearing, and action of certain muscles in the throat, tongue, neck and shoulders.I'll single out one item on the cranial nerve exam as deserving special mention, and that is the visual field exam. The visual fields are evaluated one eye at a time. While the patient stares at an unmoving object, the doctor asks if the patient can see objects (like the doctor's fingers) appearing in different locations of the patient's peripheral vision. In order to detect objects in the four corners of each eye's vision, the patient must have proper functioning of each of six lobes of the brain—both parietal lobes, both temporal lobes and both occipital lobes. In fact, this is the only portion of the entire neurological exam that checks the right temporal lobe. Despite its importance, the visual field exam sometimes gets skipped by medical students (in which case the ones under this author's supervision must endure hearing an earful).The motor exam includes some pretty obvious things like checking the strength of different muscles in the arms and legs, but also includes less obvious components like muscle tone, coordination, and the presence of involuntary movements. It also includes an inspection of muscles for loss of size or the presence of spontaneous twitches. Additionally, this is the part of the exam in which the doctor pulls out his or her rubber hammer and checks reflexes in the arms and legs. The motor exam also includes a briefly painful maneuver—called the Babinski test—in which the bottom of the foot is scraped with a metal object while the doctor observes for a reflexive response in certain foot-muscles.The sensory exam focuses on the processing of inputs from sensory nerve-endings in the patient's skin and joints. It can include awareness of light touch, pain, warmth, coldness and vibration. In addition, the doctor examines position-sense by moving the patient's toes and fingers up or down and asking the patient to say, without looking, which way they moved.Finally, we have those portions of the exam related to stance and walking, but also including the patients' ability to transfer in and out of their chair. While on their feet, patients are asked to walk in their usual fashion, as well as on tiptoes. They are also observed while doing a "tandem gait," known more commonly as the "state trooper test," in which they walk flat-footed in a straight line with the heel of the leading foot touching the toes of the trailing foot. Last, the doctor checks the patients' ability to remain standing after closing their eyes. This is called the Romberg test.That's about it. In the hands of experienced clinicians the neurological exam doesn't take much longer to perform than to describe, and yet provides a wealth of information about the functioning of the patient's nervous system. In this age of high-tech imaging devices the neurological exam might seem archaic or old-fashioned, but it is still indispensable, and provides diagnostic information that even a battery of CT or MRI scans might miss.(C) 2005 by Gary CordingleyGary Cordingley, MD, PhD, is a clinical neurologist, teacher and researcher who works in Athens, Ohio. For more health-related articles, see his website at: http: / / www.cordingleyneurology.com

#exam #examination #physical #neurology #neurologist #brain #brainstem #spinalcord #nerves #muscles #mental
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 2 tygodnie temu
***Yoga Teachers Lead by Example - Part 1*** During the cour unimarter UniMarter
***Yoga Teachers Lead by Example - Part 1***

During the course of a lifetime, most of us have heard the saying,” Do as I say, not as I do.” We see this kind of leadership everywhere we go. All politicians, religious leaders, police, sports professionals, parents, academic teachers, and Yoga teachers, lead by example, even if the example displayed is not a good one.So, how does this concern you? You may not be a public
figure, but your students, and the general public, know who you are. Some may even know more about you than you would like. As a Yoga teacher, you want to keep your health, behavior, and your ethics at a high standard - if you are going to be in the “public eye.”As far as health is concerned, you should maintain your Yoga practice and meditate daily. This is an irony with many Yoga teachers because your time is also consumed with the business of Yoga, maintenance of the studio, advertising, and many more aspects that keep a business going.My personal estimate of time that I spent on vacuuming, cleaning, and maintenance of the Yoga studio is thousands of hours before I hired someone else to do it. This does not account for any of the time spent on many other duties that go into running a Yoga studio.The average Yoga student has no idea of the preparation and support services involved before they come to a typical Yoga class. In reality, you want them to feel relaxed, so you don’t want your Yoga students to feel stressed out over the bookkeeping, marketing, and maintenance of your Yoga studio.Therefore, you have to put your best “game face” on during class time. This is one very powerful reason for taking the time to develop your own personal Yoga practice. You still must expand your depth of understanding Yoga’s many facets.Why do, or did, you want to be a Yoga teacher in the first place? The most common reasons for becoming a Yoga teacher are your passion for Yoga and to share the gift that has changed your life. Your health and your personal Yoga practice are an integral part of the Yoga teaching vocation.Maybe you don’t have a staff and you are busy all the time preparing for the next Yoga class. What can you do? Budget your time and make a personal Yoga, or meditation session, for yourself. Spending thousands of hours on bookkeeping, marketing, cleaning, and maintenance is part of many Yoga studio owners’ lives, but you must also make the time to become a better Yoga practitioner.You can also offer reduced rates to volunteers or “work for trade” programs to those Yoga students who help you with “domestic chores.” You should consult your accountant to make sure everything is legal and “above board.” You don’t want to violate any child labor laws or set yourself up for any legal problems, so make sure you are following the law “to the letter.” Remember also, that laws vary depending upon your location.It’s too easy to let the business of Yoga become your new reality. The business of teaching Yoga is more time consuming than any of us can imagine as Yoga students. If you are spending so much time working on your Yoga business, that you have little time to practice, you must re-evaluate your reason for teaching Yoga.Make time every day to expand your knowledge about Yoga’s many aspects. If you don’t take the time to be a Yoga student and engage in learning, continuing education, and nurturing your passion for Yoga, you risk burn out. The best Yoga teachers are students for life, who love to practice this wonderful discipline we know as Yoga.When your Yoga studio, Yoga teaching position, or ashram becomes a daily burden, and you cannot expand your knowledge; the end result is no different than any other job. As a Yoga teacher, you owe it to your students to keep your “internal flames of passion” for Yoga going.© Copyright 2005 – Paul Jerard / Aura PublicationsPaul Jerard is the director of Yoga teacher training at Aura in RI. He’s a master instructor of martial arts and Yoga. He teaches Yoga, martial arts, and fitness. He wrote: Is Running a Yoga Business Right for You? For Yoga students wanting to be a Yoga teacher.
http: / / www.yoga-teacher-training.org

#health #healthy #fit #fitness #yoga #teacher #teachers #lead #leads #example #examples
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Interview with Ann Kelly, Author of the Award-Winning Mystery unimarter UniMarter
***Interview with Ann Kelly, Author of the Award-Winning Mystery Novel "Dead On"***

Ann Kelly is author of the award-winning mystery novel Dead On. The story tells of a medical examiner being stalked by a killer who claims to have killed her in previous lifetimes. Based in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, the gritty mystery with erotic undertones, and a hint of the paranormal, is a difficult book to put down. Ann Kelly recently answered some questions about her novel.David: The idea of a murderer being reincarnated to kill the same victim across multiple lifetimes is truly unique. Where did you get the idea for your book?Ann Kelly: Dead On started out as a paranormal romance and became something completely different. I don't want to give too much away, but when I started Dead On, a little way into it, a character came out of nowhere and took the book over. I didn't know it at the time, but I was finding my voice. Two major themes in my book are: Do any of us really know who we are? And do we have past lives or inherited memories? Perhaps that would explain things like sudden, irrational fears or memories. I found out that whether or not a person believes in past lives, past-life regression therapy can help a person deal with issues that haven't been resolved through other traditional therapies. In many cases, you don't have to believe in it for it to work. I was also fascinated by the idea of a group of souls being reborn throughout time and their histories repeating themselves.David: Who is your favorite character in Dead On?Ann Kelly: All I can say is my favorite character in this book is the character who writes the journal in the early 1900s (the story goes back and forth in time between the present and the early 1900s). I don?t want to give too much away!David: I know you sold the movie rights for the book. Congratulations. Who would you like to see fill the various roles?Ann Kelly: Yes, thank you. Gold Circle Films, known for the movie My Big Fat Greek Wedding, picked up film rights to Dead On and recently renewed the option for a second year. It?s exciting. I could see Lucy Liu playing Ann Yang, the smart, unconventional medical examiner and Leo DiCaprio playing Mark, Ann?s romantic interest and the carpenter restoring her Victorian home. Johnny Depp would be excellent as Farrell, a character in the 1900s. Loved him in Pirates of the Caribbean, and everything else he?s been in! Harrison Ford would make a great hypnotherapist. To play Nell, one of the main characters in the 1900s, I see Nicole Kidman or Naomi Watts. I can?t tell you who I see playing the character who writes the diary, because ? again ? that would give too much away!David: Did you know how Dead On was going to end before you started writing the book?Ann Kelly: No, not right away. But about two-thirds of the way into writing it, an ending came to me. I just let go, wrote it out and liked it. In fact, many of my readers tell me that?s one of the book?s main strengths?the ending. It?s a seat-of-your-pants kind of thing with a big surprise. Even the most seasoned of mystery readers told me I managed to fake them out with the ending.David: When talking to people who read your book, what are the one or two reader comments that stick out most in your mind?Ann Kelly: The things that mean the most to me are when readers personally take the time to tell me what they experienced reading Dead On. The comments that keep me going are things like "Dead On is pure poetry." "I stayed up until 2 am to finish it!" And "I couldn?t put it down--I read it in two days!" Also, a reader from Pennsylvania contacted me and pretty much summed everything up with the following quote: "I've finished reading your book. Loved it. You absolutely stunned me with the ending. I like your style. You use very few words and incomplete sentences and yet the meaning is enhanced rather than diminished. Your command of knowledge and understanding from history to forensics to emotions...is amazing."David: Do you have any other novels in mind? Can you give us some insights into what we can expect?Ann Kelly: I?m currently at work on two other novels, one of which is a sequel to Dead On tentatively titled Dead Faithful. In Dead Faithful, Ann Yang is now an FBI agent working in New Hope, Pennsylvania, to solve a series of bizarre crimes including grave robbing, stolen art, and murders with vampire overtones. She is paired with a politically incorrect, almost-retired, lame-joke-telling partner and a psychic medium. There?s a lot more of my odd sense of humor in this one. I sort of think of the tone as Janet Evanovich meets Peter Straub.I think of my other novel, Glass Wishes, as my dark literary experiment. This is a different set of characters and also goes back and forth between the present and another time, 1945, the end of WWII. Glass Wishes is set in Ocean City, New Jersey, a place I was introduced to as a kid and fell in love with. I?m working to release Glass Wishes next.Visit http: / / www.DeadOnNovel.com to learn more about Ann Kelly and her novel Dead On.David Tortorelli is president of Book Premieres ? http: / / www.BookPremieres.com.

#mystery #suspense #novel #doylestown #reincarnated #medical #examiner #award -winning
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***CCNA / MCSE / CCNP Certification: Making Failure Work For unimarter UniMarter
***CCNA / MCSE / CCNP Certification: Making Failure Work For You***

Whether you're on the road to the CCNA, CCNP, MCSE, or you're on any other computer certification track, the odds are that sooner or later, you're going to fail an exam. It's happened to almost all of us, yours truly included. What you have to keep in mind in these times is that success is not a straight line. You've probably seen charts showing the growth of an industry or a business -- you know, the ones that go from left to right, and look kind of jagged. The line goes up for a while, then down a bit, then up some more, then down a little.The key? While every business has its setbacks, the net result is that the line goes up and progress is made. That's how you want your certification pursuit and your career to go as well - upward!I'm not asking you to be happy about failing an exam. You're allowed to get mad for a few minutes, vow to never take another exam again, and be disappointed. What you're not allowed to do is stay that way.If you put your books away in a fit of anger, get them out. If you took some time off, it's time to get back to work. Again, there's nothing wrong with being unhappy about failing an exam. It's how you handle that failure that counts. No inventor, executive, or entrepreneur has ever been right 100% of the time. Learn something from your failure. Was your study time quality study time? Did you get some hands-on practice with the technology you're studying? Asking yourself these questions can be tough, but it can be highly valuable in making sure you don't fail the next time. And there must be a next time - because the one thing you cannot do is quit.Besides, take it from someone who's been there - your temporary failure makes your eventual success that much sweeter.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #cisco #certification #exam #fail #mcse #ccnp #icnd #intro #pass #free #tutorial #chris #bryant
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Review: Protocol Basic unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Review: Protocol Basics***

To earn your Cisco CCNA certification and pass the BSCI CCNP exam, you have to know your protocol basics like the back of your hand! To help you review these important concepts, here's a quick look at the basics of RIPv1, RIPv2, IGRP, and EIGRP.RIPv1: Broadcasts updates every 30 seconds to the address 255.255.255.255. RIPv1 is a classful protocol, and it does not recognize VLSM, nor does it carry subnet masking information in its routing updates. Update contains entire RIP routing table. Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. Allows equal-cost load-balancing by default. Max hop count is 15. Does not support clear-text or MD5 authentication of routing updates. Updates carry 25 routes maximum.RIPv2: Multicasts updates every 30 seconds to the address 224.0.0.9. RIPv2 is a classless protocol, allowing the use of subnet masks. Update contains entire RIP routing table. Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. Allows equal-cost load-balancing by default. Max hop count is 15. Supports clear-text and MD5 authentication of routing updates. Updates carry 25 routes maximum.IGRP: Broadcasts updates every 90 seconds to the address 255.255.255.255. IGRP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol, and is also a classful protocol and does not recognize subnet masking. Update contains entire routing table. Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. Equal-cost load-balancing on by default; unequal-cost load-sharing can be used with the variance command. Max hop count is 100.EIGRP: Multicasts full routing table only when an adjacency is first formed. Multicasts updates only when there is a change in the network topology, and then only advertises the change. Multicasts to 224.0.0.10 and allows the use of subnet masks. Uses DUAL routing algorithm. Unequal-cost load-sharing available with the variance command.By mastering the basics of these protocols, you're laying the foundation for success in the exam room and when working on production networks. Pay attention to the details and the payoff is "CCNA" and "CCNP" behind your name!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNA exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #exam #protocol #ccnp #bsci #protocol #rip #igrp #eigrp #multicast #address #free #equal #cost
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: Port-Based Authentica unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: Port-Based Authentication***

To pass your CCNA exam and earn this coveted certification, you must understand the details of port-based authentication. This knowledge has a great deal of value in production networks as well, since this authentication scheme is regularly implemented. Let's take a look at this particular CCNA skill.Consider a situation where you have a server that will be connected to your switch, and you want the port to shut down if a device with a different MAC address that that of the switch attempts to connect to that port. You could also have a situation where you have someone who has a connection to a switch port in his office, and he wants to make sure that only his laptop can use that port.Both of these examples are real-world situations, and there are two solutions for each. First, we could create a static MAC entry for that particular switch port. I don't recommend this, mainly because both you and I have better things to do than manage static MAC entries. The better solution is to configure port-based authentication on the switch.The Cisco switch uses MAC addresses to enforce port security. With port security, only devices with certain MAC addresses can connect to the port successfully. This is another reason source MACs are looked at before the destination MAC is examined. If the source MAC is non-secure and port-based authentication is in effect, the destination does not matter, as the frame will not be forwarded. In essence, the source MAC address serves as the password.MAC addresses that are allowed to successfully communicate with the switch port are secure MAC addresses. The default number of secure MAC addresses is 1, but a maximum of 132 secure MACs can be configured.When a non-secure MAC address attempts to communicate with the switch port, one of three actions will occur, depending on the port security mode. In Protect mode, frames with non-secure MAC addresses are dropped. There is no notification that a violation has occurred. The port will continue to switch frames for the secure MAC address.In Restrict mode, the same action is taken, but a syslog message is logged via SNMP, which is a messaging protocol used by Cisco routers.In Shutdown mode, the interface goes into error-disabled state, the port LED will go out, and a syslog message is logged. The port has to be manually reopened. Shutdown mode is the default port-security mode.Port-based authentication is just one of the many switching skills you'll have to demonstrate to earn your CCNA certification. Make sure you know the basics shown here, including the action of each particular mode, and you're on your way to CCNA exam success!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #cisco #certification #switch #port #based #authentication #free #pass #exam #secure #mac #ccie
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Tutorial: Frame Relay End-T unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Tutorial: Frame Relay End-To-End Keepalives***

One of the first things you learned about Frame is that the LMI also serves as a keepalive, or a heartbeat - and if three consecutive LMIs are missed, the line protocol goes down. There's a limitation to LMI as a keepalive, though. The LMI is exchanged only between the DTE and the closest DCE. The LMI is therefore a local keepalive that does not reflect any possible issues on the remote end of the virtual circuit.Taking the LMI concept to the next logical level, Frame Relay End-To-End Keepalives (FREEK, one of the least-heard Cisco acronyms for some reason) are used to verify that endpoint-to-endpoint communications are functioning properly.What you have to keep in mind about FREEK is that each and every PVC needs two separate keepalive processes. Remember, with a PVC, there's no guarantee that the path taking through the frame relay cloud to get from R1 to R2 is going to be the same path taken to go back from R2 to R1. One process will be used to send requests for information and handle the responses to these requests; this is the send side. When the send side transmits a keepalive request, a response is expected in a certain number of seconds. If one is not received, an error event is noted. If enough error events are recorded, the VC's keepalive status is marked as down.The process that responds to the other side's requests is the receive side.This being Cisco, we've got to have some modes, right? FREEK has four operational modes.Bidirectional mode enables both the send and receive process enabled on the router, meaning that the router will send requests and process responses (send side) and will also respond to remote requests for information (receive side).Request mode enables only the send process. The router will send requests and process responses to those requests, but will not answer requests from other routers.Reply mode enables only the receive process. The router will respond to requests from other routers but will initiate no requests of its own.Finally, passive reply mode allows the router to respond to requests, but no timers are set and no events are tracked.Frame Relay End-To-End Keepalive defaults:Two send or receive errors must be registered in order for the VC to be considered down.The event window size is three. The event window is the number of events considered by the router when determining the status of the VC. Therefore, using the defaults, two send or receive errors would have to be received within the event window of three events for the VC to be considered down.The timer mentioned earlier - the amount of time a router waits for a response - is set to 10 secondsWorking with Frame Relay end-to-end keepalives is just one Frame skill you?ll need to pass the CCNP exams ? and I wouldn?t be surprised to see them on a CCIE exam. Know the details and you?re on your way to Cisco certification exam success!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #frame #relay #keepalive #end #to #exam #pass #free #tutorial #pvc #svc #map #chris #ccie
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: Configuring P unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: Configuring PPP Callback***

You may run into situations where a router in a remote location needs to dial in to a central router, but the toll charges are much higher if the remote router makes the call. This scenario is perfect for PPP Callback, where the callback client places a call to a callback server, authentication takes place, and the server then hangs up on the client! This ensures that the client isn't charged for the call. The server then calls the client back.In the following example, R2 has been configured as the client and R1 is the callback server. Let's look at both configurations and the unique commands PPP Callback requires.Client:username R1 password CCIEinterface BRI0ip address 172.12.12.2 255.255.255.0encapsulation pppdialer map ip 172.12.12.1 name R1 broadcast 5557777dialer-group 1isdn switch-type basic-nippp callback requestppp authentication chapMost of that configuration will look familiar to you, but the ppp callback request command might not. This command enables the BRI interface to request the callback.Simple enough, right? The PPP Callback Server config requires more configuration and an additional map-class as well.Server:username R2 password CCIE
interface BRI0ip address 172.12.12.1 255.255.255.0encapsulation pppdialer callback-securedialer map ip 172.12.12.2 name R2 class CALL_R2_BACK broadcast 5558888dialer-group 1isdn switch-type basic-nippp callback acceptppp authentication chapmap-class dialer CALL_R2_BACKdialer callback-server usernameExamining the PPP Callback Server command from the top down...dialer callback-secure enables security on the callback. If the remote router cannot be authenticated for callback, the incoming call will be disconnected.The dialer map statement now calls the class CALL_R2_BACK, shown at the bottom of the config excerpt.ppp callback accept enables PPP callback on this router.dialer callback-server username tells the callback server that the device referenced in the dialer map statement is a callback client.The only way to find out if the config works is to test it, so let's send a ping from R2 to R1 and see if the callback takes place.R2#ping 172.12.12.1Type escape sequence to abort.Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.12.12.1, timeout is 2 seconds:02:45:42: BR0 DDR: Dialing cause ip (s=172.12.12.2, d=172.12.12.1)02:45:42: BR0 DDR: Attempting to dial 555777702:45:42: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up02:45:42: BR0:1 DDR: Callback negotiated - Disconnecting now02:45:42: BR0:1 DDR: disconnecting call02:45:42: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 5557777 R102:45:42: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to down02:45:42: DDR: Callback client for R1 5557777 created02:45:42: BR0:1 DDR: disconnecting call.....Success rate is 0 percent (0 / 5)R2#02:45:57: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to upR2#02:45:57: BR0:1 DDR: Callback received from R1 555777702:45:57: DDR: Freeing callback to R1 555777702:45:57: BR0:1 DDR: dialer protocol up02:45:58: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to upThe callback was successfully negotiated, and the call then disconnected. R1 then called R2 back, and show dialer on R1 confirms the purpose of the call.R1#show dialerBRI0 - dialer type = ISDNDial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status5558888 2 4 00:00:20 successful0 incoming call(s) have been screened.0 incoming call(s) rejected for callback.BRI0:1 - dialer type = ISDNIdle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs)Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs)Dialer state is data link layer upDial reason: Callback return callTime until disconnect 99 secsConnected to 5558888 (R2)Pretty cool! PPP Callback isn?t just important for passing your CCNA and CCNP exams ? in circumstances such as shown in this example, it can save your organization quite a bit of money!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, "How To Pass The CCNA" and "How To Pass The CCNP", visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage! And coming in 2007 ? Microsoft Vista certification!

#ccna #ccnp #free #exam #ppp #callback #isdn #caller #client #server #pass #bcran #tutorial #bryant
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Exam Tutorial: Testing ISDN Links Without unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Exam Tutorial: Testing ISDN Links Without Pings***

To earn your Cisco CCNA and CCNP certifications, you've got to master ISDN - and despite what some people say, there's still a lot of ISDN out there that needs to be supported. And when it comes to troubleshooting ISDN, there's a lot to look at. Is the correct ISDN switchtype configured? Are the dialer map statements correct? What about the dialer-group and dialer-list commands? And that's just the start.I always say that all troubleshooting starts at Layer 1, the Physical layer of the OSI model. The usual method of troubleshooting ISDN is sending pings across the link, but the connection can be tested without using pings or even before assigning IP addresses to the BRI interfaces!It's a good idea to place these test calls before configuring the interfaces - that way, you know you've got a valid connection before beginning the configuration (and there's a lot of config to go along with ISDN!)To place a test call without using pings, use the isdn call interface command.R1#isdn call interface bri0 8358662R1#03:54:43: BR0 DDR: Attempting to dial 835866203:54:43: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up03:54:44: BR0:1 DDR: dialer protocol up03:54:45: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up03:54:49: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 8358662 R2To tear the test call down correctly, use isdn disconnect interface. IOS Help displays the options with this command.R1#isdn disconnect interface bri 0 ?all Disconnect the data call(s) on all b channelsb1 Disconnect the data call on b1 channelb2 Disconnect the data call on b2 channelR1#isdn disconnect interface bri 0 all03:58:36: BR0:1 DDR: disconnecting call03:58:36: BR0:2 DDR: disconnecting call03:58:36: %ISDN-6-DISCONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 disconnected from 8358662
R2, call lasted 20 seconds03:58:36: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to down03:58:36: BR0:1 DDR: disconnecting call03:58:37: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to downI say "correctly" because the one thing you don't want to do to end an ISDN call, test or otherwise, is just shut the interface. Telcos don't like it, and ISDN lab devices like it even less. Always let the d-channel do its work and tear the call down in an orderly fashion - don't just cut it off by shutting the interface down.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #isdn #bri #test #call #disconnect #ping #d #b #channel #pass #free #exam #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Frame Relay BECNs and unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Frame Relay BECNs and FECNs***

BECNs and FECNs aren't just important to know for your Cisco CCNA and CCNP certification exams - they're an important part of detecting congestion on a Frame Relay network and allowing the network to dynamically adjust its transmission rate when congestion is encountered.The Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN, pronounced "feckon") bit is set to zero by default, and will be set to 1 if congestion was experienced by the frame in the direction in which the frame was traveling. A DCE (frame relay switch) will set this bit, and a DTE (router) will receive it, and see that congestion was encountered along the frame's path.If network congestion exists in the opposite direction in which the frame was traveling, the Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN, pronounced "beckon") will be set to 1 by a DCE.If this is your first time working with BECNs and FECNs, you might wonder why the BECN even exists - after all, why send a "backwards" notification? The BECN is actually the most important part of this entire process, since it's the BECN bit that indicates to the sender that it needs to slow down!For example, frames sent from Kansas City to Green Bay encounter congestion in the FR cloud. A Frame Switch sets the FECN bit to 1. In order to alert KC that it's sending data too fast, GB will send return frames with the BECN bit set. When KC sees the BECN bit is set to 1, the KC router knows that the congestion occurred when frames were sent from KC to GB.Frame Relay BECN Adaptive Shaping allows a router to dynamically throttle back on its transmission rate if it receives frames from the remote host with the BECN bit set. In this case, KC sees that the traffic it's sending to GB is encountering congestion, because the traffic coming back from GB has the BECN bit set. If BECN Adaptive Shaping is running on KC, that router will adjust to this congestion by slowing its transmission rate. When the BECNs stop coming in from GB, KC will begin to send at a faster rate.BECN Adaptive Shaping is configured as follows:KC(config)#int s0KC(config-if)#frame-relay adaptive-shaping becnTo see how many frames are coming in and going out with the BECN and FECN bits set, run show frame pvc.R3#show frame pvc< some output removed for clarity >input pkts 306 output pkts 609 in bytes 45566out bytes 79364 dropped pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0out bcast pkts 568 out bcast bytes 75128pvc create time 01:26:27, last time pvc status changed 01:26:27Just watch the "in"s and "out"s of BECN, FECN, and DE in both the exam room and your production networks!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #certification #ccnp #exam #frame #relay #becn #fecn #de #congestion #bryant #advantage
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Frame Relay Encapsula unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Frame Relay Encapsulation Types***

When you're studying to pass the Cisco CCNA and CCNP certification exams, you quickly learn that there's always something else to learn. (You'll really pick up on this in your CCIE studies, trust me!) Today we'll take a look at an often-overlooked topic in Frame Relay, the encapsulation type. You don't exactly change this on a daily basis in production networks (not if you want to stay employed, anyway!), but it's an important exam topic that you must be familiar with.The DCE and DTE must agree on the LMI type, but there's another value that must be agreed upon by the two DTEs serving as the endpoints of the VC. The Frame encapsulation can be left at the default of Cisco (which is Cisco-proprietary), or it can be changed to the industry-standard IETF, as shown below. If a non-Cisco router is the remote endpoint, IETF encapsulation must be used. Note that the default of Cisco isn't listed as an option by IOS Help, so you better know that one by heart!R1(config)#int s0R1(config-if)#encap frame ?ietf Use RFC1490 / RFC2427 encapsulationR1(config-if)#encap frame ietfWhat if a physical interface is in use and some remote hosts require Cisco encapsulation and others require IETF? The encapsulation type can be configured on a per-PVC basis as well. One encap type can be used on the interface, and any map statements that require a different encap type can have that specified in the appropriate map statement. In the following example, all PVCs will use the default Cisco encapsulation type except for PVC 115. The frame map statement using that PVC has ietf specified.R1(config)#int s0 / 0R1(config-if)#encap frameR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.3 123 broadcastR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 122 ietf broadcastshow frame map shows us that the mapping to DLCI 123 is using Cisco encapsulation, and DLCI 122 is using IETF.R1#show frame mapSerial0 (up): ip 172.12.123.3 dlci 123(0x7B,0x1CB0), staticbroadcast, CISCO, status defined, activeSerial0 (up): ip 172.12.123.2 dlci 122(0x7B,0x1CB0), staticbroadcast, ietf, status defined, activeJust remember that Cisco is the default, and all PVCs will use Cisco unless you specify IETF in the frame map statement itself. You could also change the entire interface to use IETF for all mappings with the frame-relay encapsulation IETF command. For Cisco exams, as well as work on production networks, it's always a good idea to know more than one way to do something!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage

#ccna #ccnp #cisco #certification #frame #relay #ietf #pvc #router #serial #interface #exam #pass
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Same Command, Differe unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Same Command, Different Results***

As a CCNA or CCNP, one thing you've got to get used to is that change is constant. Cisco regularly issues new IOS versions, not to mention the many different kinds of hardware they produce! While it's always nice to have "the latest and the greatest" when it comes to routers, switches, firewalls, etc., we have to be prepared for the fact that not all our clients are going to have that latest and greatest!For instance, there are still quite a few Catalyst 5000 switches out there humming away, and if you're used to working on IOS-driven switches like the 2950, the same command can have dramatically different results.Let's say you're going to examine the spanning tree protocol (STP) setup of a new client. You're used to working with newer 2950 switches, and you've always run show span on those switches to display spanning-tree information. Then, you run show span on a Catalyst 5000 - and something like this shows:switch (enable) show spanDestination : Port 6 / 1Admin Source : Port 6 / 2Oper Source : Port 6 / 2Direction : transmit / receiveIncoming Packets: disabledLearning : enabledMulticast : enabledFilter : -Status : activeTotal local span sessions: 1What's going on here?The command show span on a 5000 will not show spanning tree stats - instead, what you're going to see are statistics relating to Switched Port ANalyzer (SPAN). Surprise!Consider an example where you're used to running show span on 5000 switches to see SPAN information. When you run that on a 2950, you know now what you're going to get - spanning tree information! On a 2950, you'll need to run show monitor session, followed by the SPAN session number.SW1#show monitor session 1Session 1---------Type : Local SessionSource Ports :Both : Fa0 / 1Destination Ports : Fa0 / 2Encapsulation : NativeIngress: DisabledAs a CCNA and CCNP, this is one of those things you just have to get used to. Commands are going to be different, sometimes radically so, between models. That's why you need to be adept with both IOS Help and Cisco's online documentation site. IOS Help is easy, but the online doc site take a little getting used to. Once you learn how to navigate that site, a world of Cisco knowledge is at your fingertips.Besides, when you sit for the CCIE lab exam, that will be the only friend you have! And a valuable friend it can be - you're just going to have to trust me on that one. :)Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, "How To Pass The CCNA" and "How To Pass The CCNP", visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #bsci #bcran #free #exam #tutorial #span #tree #protocol #router #switch #ios #5000
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Caller ID Screening A unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Caller ID Screening And Callback***

As a CCNA and / or CCNP candidate, you've got to be able to spot situations where Cisco router features can save your client money and time. For example, if a spoke router is calling a hub router and the toll charges at the spoke site are higher than that of the hub router, having the hub router hang up initially and then call the spoke router back can save the client money (and make you look good!)A popular method of doing this is using PPP callback, but as we all know, it's a good idea to know more than one way to do things in Cisco World! A lesser-known but still effective method of callback is Caller ID Screening & Callback. Before we look at the callback feature, though, we need to know what Caller ID Screening is in the first place!This feature is often referred to simply as "Caller ID", which can be a little misleading if you've never seen this service in operation before. To most of us, Caller ID is a phone service that displays the source phone number of an incoming call. Caller ID Screening has a different meaning, though. Caller ID Screening on a Cisco router is really another kind of password - it defines the phone numbers that are allowed to call the router.The list of acceptable source phone numbers is created with the isdn caller command. Luckily for us, this command allows the use of x to specify a wildcard number. The command isdn caller 555xxxx results in calls being accepted from any 7-digit phone number beginning with 555, and rejected in all other cases. We'll configure R2 to do just that and then send a ping from R1 to R2. To see the results of the Caller ID Screening, debug dialer will be run on R1 before sending the ping. I?ve edited this output, since the output you see here will be repeated fire times ? once for each ping packet.R2(config-if)#isdn caller 555xxxxR1#debug dialerDial on demand events debugging is onR1#ping 172.12.12.2Type escape sequence to abort.Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.12.12.2, timeout is 2 seconds:03:30:25: BR0 DDR: Dialing cause ip (s=172.12.12.1, d=172.12.12.2)03:30:25: BR0 DDR: Attempting to dial 8358662.Success rate is 0 percent (0 / 5)R1 doesn't give us any hints as to what the problem is, but we can see that the pings definitely aren't going through. On R2, show dialer displays the number of screened calls.R2#show dialerBRI0 - dialer type = ISDNDial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status8358661 1 0 00:03:16 successful7 incoming call(s) have been screened.0 incoming call(s) rejected for callback.The callback option mentioned in the last line shown above enables the router to reject a phone call, and then call that router back seconds later.R2 will now be configured to initially hang up on R1, and then call R1 back.R2(config-if)#isdn caller 8358661 callbackR1 will now ping R2. The pings aren't returned, but seconds later R2 calls R1 back.R1#ping 172.12.12.2Success rate is 0 percent (0 / 5)R1#03:48:12: BRI0: wait for isdn carrier timeout, call id=0x8023R1#03:48:18: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to upR1#03:48:18: BR0:1 DDR: dialer protocol upR1#03:48:19: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to upR1#03:48:24: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 8358662 R2show dialer on R2 shows the reason for the call to R1 is a callback return call.R2#show dialerBRI0 - dialer type = ISDNDial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status8358661 3 0 00:00:48 successful7 incoming call(s) have been screened.10 incoming call(s) rejected for callback.BRI0:1 - dialer type = ISDNIdle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs)Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs)Dialer state is data link layer upDial reason: Callback return callTime until disconnect 71 secsConnected to 8358661 (R1)The drawback to Caller ID Callback is that not all telco switches support it, so if you have the choice between this and PPP Callback, you're probably better off with PPP Callback. However, it's always a good idea to know more than one way to get things done with Cisco!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bcran #pass #free #caller #id #callback #ppp #isdn #cisco #certification #exam #ccie #ccna
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Cabling Your Home Lab* unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Cabling Your Home Lab***

More CCNA and CCNP candidates than ever before are putting together their own home labs, and there's no better way to learn about Cisco technologies than working with the real thing. Getting the routers and switches is just part of putting together a great CCNA / CCNP home lab, though. You've got to get the right cables to connect the devices, and this is an important part of your education as well. After all, without the right cables, client networks are going to have a hard time working!For your Cisco home lab, one important cable is the DTE / DCE cable. These cables have two major uses in a home lab. To practice directly connecting Cisco routers via Serial interfaces (an important CCNA skill), you'll need to connect them with a DTE / DCE cable. Second, if you plan on having a Cisco router act as a frame relay switch in your lab, you'll need multiple DTE / DCE cables to do so. (Visit my website's Home Lab Help section for a sample Frame Relay switch configuration.)If you have multiple switches in your lab, that's great, because you'll be able to get a lot of spanning tree protocol (STP) work in as well as creating Etherchannels. To connect your switches, you'll need crossover cables.You'll need some straight-through cables as well to connect your routers to the switches.Finally, if you're lucky enough to have an access server as part of your lab, you'll need an octal cable to connect your AS to the other routers and switches in your lab. The octal cable has one large connector on one end and eight numbered RJ-45 connectors on the other end. The large connector should be attached to the async port on your AS, and the numbered RJ-45 connectors will be connected to the console ports on your other routers and switches.Choosing and connecting the right cables for your Cisco CCNA / CCNP home lab is a great learning experience, and it's also an important part of your Cisco education. After all, all great networks and home labs all begin at Layer One of the OSI model!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #home #lab #cable #router #switch #crossover #dte #dce #serial #direct #pass #free #exam
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Lab: Frame Relay Subint unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Lab: Frame Relay Subinterfaces And Split Horizon***

Earning your Cisco CCNA and CCNP is a tough proposition, and part of that is the fact that you quickly learn that there?s usually more than one way to do things with Cisco routers ? and while that?s generally a good thing, you better know the ins and outs of all options when it comes to test day and working on production networks. Working with Frame Relay subinterfaces and split horizon is just one such situation.One reason for the use of subinterfaces is to circumvent the rule of split horizon. You recall from your CCNA studies that split horizon dictates that a route cannot be advertised out the same interface upon which it was learned in the first place. In the following example, R1 is the hub and R2 and R3 are the spokes. All three routers are using their physical interfaces for frame relay connectivity, and they are also running RIPv2 172.12.123.0 / 24. Each router is also advertising a loopback interface, using the router number for each octet.R1(config)#int s0R1(config-if)#ip address 172.12.123.1 255.255.255.0R1(config-if)#no frame inverseR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 122 broadcastR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.3 123 broadcastR1(config-if)#no shutR2(config)#int s0R2(config-if)#encap frameR2(config-if)#no frame inverR2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.1 221 broadcastR2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.3 221 broadcastR2(config-if)#ip address 172.12.123.2 255.255.255.0R3(config)#int s0R3(config-if)#encap frameR3(config-if)#no frame inverR3(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.1 321 broadcastR3(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 321 broadcastR3(config-if)#ip address 172.12.123.3 255.255.255.0R1#show ip route rip2.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 2.2.2.2 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.2, 00:00:20, Serial03.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 3.3.3.3 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:22, Serial0R2#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:06, Serial0R3#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:04, Serial0The hub router R1 has a route to both loopbacks, but neither spoke has a route to the other spoke's loopback. That's because split horizon prevents R1 from advertising a network via Serial0 if the route was learned on Serial0 to begin with.We've got two options here, one of which is to disable spilt horizon on the interface. While doing so will have the desired effect in our little network, disabling split horizon is not a good idea and should be avoided whenever possible. We?re not going to do it in this lab, but here is the syntax to do so:R1(config)#interface serial0R1(config-if)#no ip split-horizonA better solution is to configure subinterfaces on R1. The IP addressing will have to be revisited, but that's no problem here. R1 and R2 will use 172.12.123.0 / 24 to communicate, while R1 and R3 will use 172.12.13.0 / 24. R3's serial0 interface will need to be renumbered, so let's look at all three router configurations:R1(config)#interface serial0R1(config-if)#encap frameR1(config-if)#no frame inverse-arpR1(config-if)#no ip addressR1(config-if)#interface serial0.12 multipointR1(config-subif)#ip address 172.12.123.1 255.255.255.0R1(config-subif)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 122 broadcastR1(config-subif)#interface serial0.31 point-to-pointR1(config-subif)#ip address 172.12.13.1 255.255.255.0R1(config-subif)#frame interface-dlci 123R2(config)#int s0R2(config-if)#ip address 172.12.123.2 255.255.255.0R2(config-if)#encap frameR2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.13.3 221 broadcastR2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.1 221 broadcastR3(config)#int s0R3(config-if)#ip address 172.12.13.3 255.255.255.0R3(config-if)#encap frameR3(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.13.1 321 broadcastR3(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 321 broadcastA frame map statement always names the REMOTE IP address and the LOCAL DLCI. Don't forget the broadcast option!Show frame map shows us that all the static mappings on R1 are up and running. Note the "static" output, which indicates these mappings are a result of using the frame map command. Pings are not shown, but all three routers can ping each other at this point.R1#show frame mapSerial0 (up): ip 172.12.123.2 dlci 122(0x7A,0x1CA0), static,broadcast, CISCO, status defined, activeSerial0 (up): ip 172.12.13.3 dlci 123(0x7B,0x1CB0), static,broadcast, CISCO, status defined, activeAfter the 172.12.13.0 / 24 network is added to R1 and R3?s RIP configuration, R2 and R3 now have each other's loopback network in their RIP routing tables.R2#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:20, Serial03.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 3.3.3.3 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:22, Serial0R3#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 172.12.13.1, 00:00:20, Serial02.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 2.2.2.2 [120 / 1] via 172.12.13.1, 00:00:22, Serial0While turning split horizon off is one way to achieve total IP connectivity, doing so can have other unintended results. The use of subinterfaces is a more effective way of allowing the spokes to see the hub's loopback network.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #exam #certification #frame #relay #subinterface #split #horizon #rip #network #loopback
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco / Microsoft Computer Certification: Be Ready For Your unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco / Microsoft Computer Certification: Be Ready For Your Opportunity***

I was reading The Big Moo: Stop Trying To Be Perfect and Start Being Remarkable this morning, and I?d recommend a copy of this to anyone who wants to improve their career and their future. And that?s all of us, right?There was one particular line that really stood out to me: Betting on change is always the safest bet available. That describes life perfectly, but it also describes a career in Information Technology perfectly as well. There is no field in the world that has the constant and never-ending changes that IT does. And every single one of us can look at this as a massive opportunity for personal and professional growth.Is that how you?re looking at it? I remember when I passed my first certification exam, the Novell CAN, back in 1997. Man, I thought I knew it all then. J But I quickly learned that you?ve got to keep learning in IT. I also learned that if you?re willing to put in the work and make the sacrifices, there?s no other field with the limitless potential for growth and excellence.Like everyone else, my career has had its ups and downs, but I always kept learning and growing. Today, I?ve got my dream job, working with students and customers just like you ? to help you create your own future.The next 18 months are filled with endless possibilities, particularly with the rapid growth of VoIP and Microsoft Vista on the horizon. There will be those who rationalize their inertia, saying ?I?ll never have to support those, so I don?t need to learn them."There will also be those who see VoIP and Vista as enormous opportunities to learn and advance in their careers and their lives. These people will get started today, learning the fundamentals of Cisco and advancing their networking knowledge in order to be ready for opportunities as they come along.You can?t start studying and learning when the opportunity arrives ? you?ve got to be ready when opportunity knocks. If you?ve been putting off studying for a Cisco or other computer certification ? and I know the summer is a really good time for putting off studying ? get back on track today.Because you never know what opportunities are going to come along ? but you do know that when they do, you?ve got to be ready to take advantage. After all, opportunity really does knock only once!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #ccnp #microsoft #computer #certification #mcse #vista #nt #pass #exam #novell #bryant
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP / BCMSN Exam Review: Trunking And Trunk unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP / BCMSN Exam Review: Trunking And Trunking Protocols***

To earn your CCNA or CCNP certification, you've got to understand the basics of trunking. This isn't just a CCNA topic - you must have an advanced understanding of trunking and etherchannels to pass the BCMSN exam and earn your CCNP as well. Before we address those advanced topics, though, you need to master the fundamentals!A trunk allows inter-VLAN traffic to flow between directly connected switches. By default, a trunk port is a member of all VLANs, so traffic for any and all VLANs can travel across this trunk. That includes broadcast traffic!The default mode of a switch port does differ between models, so always check your documentation. On Cisco 2950 switches, every single port is in dynamic desirable mode by default, meaning that every port is actively attempting to trunk. On these switches, the only action needed from us is to physically connect them with a crossover cable. In just a few seconds, the port light turns green and the trunk is up and running. The command show interface trunk will verify trunking.How does the receiving switch know what VLAN the frame belongs to? The frames are tagged by the transmitting switch with a VLAN ID, reflecting the number of the VLAN whose member ports should receive this frame. When the frame arrives at the remote switch, that switch will examine this ID and then forward the frame appropriately.There are two major trunking protocols you must understand and compare successfully, those being ISL and IEEE 802.1Q. Let's take a look at the details of ISL first.ISL is a Cisco-proprietary trunking protocol, making it unsuitable for a multivendor environment. That's one drawback, but there are others. ISL will place both a header and trailer onto the frame, encapsulating it. This increases the overhead on the trunk line.You know that the default VLAN is also known as the "native VLAN", and another drawback to ISL is that ISL does not use the concept of the native VLAN. This means that every single frame transmitted across the trunk will be encapsulated.The 26-byte header that is added to the frame by ISL contains the VLAN ID; the 4-byte trailer contains a Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) value. The CRC is a frame validity scheme that checks the frame's integrity.In turn, this encapsulation leads to another potential issue. ISL encapsulation adds 30 bytes total to the size of the frame, potentially making them too large for the switch to handle. (The maximum size for an Ethernet frame is 1518 bytes.)IEEE 802.1q differs substantially from ISL. In contrast to ISL, dot1q does not encapsulate frames. A 4-byte header is added to the frame, resulting in less overhead than ISL. If the frame is destined for hosts residing in the native VLAN, that header isn't added. Since the header is only 4 bytes in size, and isn't even placed on every frame, using dot1q lessens the chance of oversized frames. When the remote port receives an untagged frame, the switch knows that these untagged frames are destined for the native VLAN.Knowing the details is the difference between passing and failing your CCNA and CCNP exams. Keep studying, get some hands-on practice, and you?re on your way to Cisco certification success!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #ccnp #bcmsn #trunking #vlan #native #isl #ieee #dot1q #encapsulation #header #exam
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)*** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)***

The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) sure looks simple enough, but there are quite a few details to know for success on the CCNA exam. In your CCNP studies, you'll be introduced to additional uses for CDP, but for now it's enough to know that CDP is designed to give you information regarding directly connected Cisco routers and switches.CDP runs by default between all directly connected Cisco devices. CDP is also a Cisco-proprietary protocol - if the directly connected device is not a Cisco device, you won't see the information you wanted.The basic CDP command to display information about the directly connected neighbor is "show cdp neighbor".R2#show cdp neighborCapability Codes: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route BridgeS - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r ? RepeaterDevice ID Local Intrfce Holdtme Capability Platform Port IDR1 BRI0 167 R 2521 Dialer1This command is particularly helpful when troubleshooting Cisco switches. There?s no need to trace wiring in a rack of Cisco devices to see what routers are connected to a Cisco switch when show cdp neighbor can be used. In the above output, you can see the remote device's hostname, what interface on the remote device is connected to the local device, the capability of the remote device, the remote device?s hardware platform, and the local interface that is connected to the remote device.CDP can be disabled at both the global and interface level. To disable CDP at the interface level, run no cdp enable on the interface, and cdp enable to turn it back on.cdp timer defines how often CDP packets are transmitted, and cdp holdtime defines how long a device will hold a received packet.To turn CDP off for the entire router, run no cdp run. To view the current global status of CDP, run show cdp.R2#show cdpGlobal CDP information:Sending CDP packets every 60 secondsSending a holdtime value of 180 secondsCDP is running by default.R2#conf tR2(config)#cdp timer 45R2(config)#cdp holdtime 100The CDP timers are changed.R2#show cdpGlobal CDP information:Sending CDP packets every 45 secondsSending a holdtime value of 100 secondsThe CDP values have been successfully changed. ?show cdp interface? will give the timer information for each interface on the router.R2#conf tR2(config)#interface bri0R2(config-if)#no cdp enableCDP is disabled on the BRI interface. This does NOT have to be done to keep the line from dialing.R2#conf tR2(config)#no cdp runCDP is disabled globally.R2#show cdp% CDP is not enabledCDP has been successfully disabled.Show cdp neighbor gives you a great deal of information, but what if you need the neighbor?s IP address? Just run show cdp neighbor detail. You will get even more information about that directly connected neighbor, including its IP address.SW2#show cdp neighbor detail-------------------------Device ID: R4Entry address(es):IP address: 172.12.23.4Platform: cisco 2520, Capabilities: RouterInterface: FastEthernet0 / 4, Port ID (outgoing port): Ethernet0Holdtime : 158 secThe details of CDP are important to you on the job and in the CCNA exam room. When you find yourself negotiating a badly documented network, you can use CDP to "walk" through the network and create a network map for your client as well. Sometimes the simplest protocols are the most helpful!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #exam #cdp #discovery #protocol #switch #router #walk #network #pass #bryant #chris
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Configuring PortFast And unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Configuring PortFast And BPDU Guard***

In your CCNA studies, you learned about PortFast and the trouble it can cause if configured on the wrong port! Suitable only for switch ports connected directly to a single host, PortFast allows a port running STP to go directly from blocking to forwarding mode.A Cisco router will give you a warning when you configure PortFast:SW1(config)#int fast 0 / 5SW1(config-if)#spanning-tree portfast%Warning: portfast should only be enabled on ports connected to a
single host. Connecting hubs, concentrators, switches, bridges, etc...
to this interface when portfast is enabled, can cause temporary
bridging loops. Use with CAUTION%Portfast has been configured on FastEthernet0 / 5 but will onlyhave effect when the interface is in a non-trunking mode.SW1(config-if)#Not only will the switch warn you about the proper usage of PortFast, but you must put the port into access mode before PortFast will take effect.Now, you'd think that would be enough of a warning, right? But there is a chance - just a chance - that someone is going to manage to connect a switch to a port running Portfast. That could lead to two major problems, the first being the formation of a switching loop. Remember, the reason we have listening and learning modes is to help prevent switching loops. The next problem is that there could be a new root bridge elected - and it could be a switch that isn't even in your network!BPDU Guard protects against this disastrous possibility. If any BPDU comes in on a port that's running BPDU Guard, the port will be shut down and placed into error disabled state, shown on the switch as err-disabled. A port placed in err-disabled state must be reopened manually.BPDU Guard is off on all ports by default, and is enabled as shown here:SW1(config)#int fast 0 / 5SW1(config-if)#spanning-tree bpduguard enableIt's a good idea to enable BPDU Guard on any port you're running PortFast on. There's no cost in overhead, and it does prevent the possibility of a switch sending BPDUs into a port configured with PortFast - not to mention the possibility of a switch not under your control becoming a root switch to your network!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #bpdu #guard #portfast #port #fast #switch #err -disabled #exam #pass
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Filtering BGP Updates With unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Filtering BGP Updates With Prefix Lists***

A major part of your BSCI and CCNP exam success is mastering BGP, and that includes filtering BGP routing updates. In this tutorial, we'll take a look at how to filter BGP updates with prefix lists.R4 is advertising three networks via BGP. The downstream router R3 sees these routes and places them into its BGP table as shown below. R3 has two downstream BGP peers, R1 and R2, and is advertising itself as the next-hop IP address for all BGP routes sent to those two routers.R4(config)#router bgp 4R4(config-router)#network 21.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0R4(config-router)#network 22.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0R4(config-router)#network 23.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0R3#show ip bgpBGP table version is 4, local router ID is 3.3.3.3Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*> 21.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 I*> 22.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 I*> 23.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 IR3(config)#router bgp 123R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 next-hop-selfR3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.2 next-hop-selfIn turn, both R1 and R2 have these three routes in their respective BGP tables.R2#show ip bgpBGP table version is 4, local router ID is 2.2.2.2Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i22.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IR1#show ip bgpBGP table version is 4, local router ID is 19.1.1.1Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i22.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IIf we wanted R3 to receive all three of these routes from R4 but not advertise all of them to R2 and R1, we've got a couple of options on how to block these routes. Cisco's recommendation is the use of prefix-lists, and once you get used to the syntax (which you should do before taking and passing the BSCI), you'll see they are actually easier to use than access-lists.In this case, we're going to configure R3 to send only the route to 21.0.0.0 to R1 and 23.0.0.0 to R2. However, we do want these two routers to get any future routes that R4 advertises into BGP.Since R1 and R2 will learn about these routes from an iBGP neighbor, they will not advertise the routes to each other.On R3, we'll write a prefix-list that denies 22.0.0.0 / 8 and 23.0.0.0 / 8, but permits all other routes. After applying the prefix list as shown, R1 sees only the 21.0.0.0 / 8 route.R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 deny 23.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32R3(config)#router bgp 123R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 prefix-list FILTER_R1 outR3#clear ip bgp * softR1#show ip bgpBGP table version is 6, local router ID is 19.1.1.1Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IThe paths to 22.0.0.0 / 8 and 23.0.0.0 / 8 have been successfully filtered.We'll do the same for R2, except the route not being expressly blocked is 23.0.0.0 / 8. The line "ip prefix-list permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32" is the prefix list equivalent of a "permit any" statement in an ACL.R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 deny 21.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32R3(config)#router bgp 123R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.2 prefix-list FILTER_R2 outR3#clear ip bgp * softR2#show ip bgpBGP table version is 6, local router ID is 2.2.2.2Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IThe paths to 21.0.0.0 / 8 and 22.0.0.0 / 8 have been successfully filtered.To see the prefix lists configured on a route as well as the order of the statements in each list, run show ip prefix-list.R3#show ip prefix-listip prefix-list FILTER_R1: 3 entriesseq 5 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8seq 10 deny 23.0.0.0 / 8seq 15 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32ip prefix-list FILTER_R2: 3 entriesseq 5 deny 21.0.0.0 / 8seq 10 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8seq 15 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32Get some hands-on practice with prefix lists and you'll quickly master them. Prefix lists are an important part of working with BGP in the exam room and production networks, so it's vital that you are comfortable working with them.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bsci #exam #free #tutorial #bgp #filter #prefix #list #update #routing #pass #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: BPDU Skew Detection And C unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: BPDU Skew Detection And Cisco Switches***

You may look at that feature's name and think, "What is a BPDU Skew, and why do I want to detect it?" What we're actually attempting to detect are BPDUs that aren't being relayed as quickly as they should be.After the root bridge election, the root bridge transmits BPDUs, and the non-root switches relay that BPDU down the STP tree. This should happen quickly all around, since the root bridge will be sending a BPDU every two seconds by default ("hello time"), and the switches should relay the BDPUs fast enough so every switch is seeing a BPDU every two seconds.That's in a perfect world, though, and there are plenty of imperfect networks out there! You may have a busy switch that can't spare the CPU to relay the BDPU quickly, or a BPDU may just simply be lost in transmission. That two-second hello time value doesn't give the switches much leeway, but we don't want the STP topology recalculated unnecessarily either.BDPU Skew Detection is strictly a notification feature. Skew Detection will not take action to prevent STP recalculation when BDPUs are not being relayed quickly enough by the switches, but it will send a syslog message informing the network administrator of the problem. The amount of time between when the BDPU should have arrived and when it did arrive is referred to as "skew time" or "BPDU latency".A busy CPU could quickly find itself overwhelmed if it had to send a syslog message for every BPDU delivery that's skewed. The syslog messages will be limited to one every 60 seconds, unless the "skew time" is at a critical level. In that case, the syslog message will be sent immediately with no one-per-minute limit.And what is "critical", according to BDPU Skew Detection? Any value greater than 1 / 2 of the MaxAge value, making the critical skew time level 10 seconds or greater.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bcmsn #bpdu #skew #detection #exam #pass #certification #switch #cisco #stp #recalculation
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: ISIS Router Types*** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: ISIS Router Types***

To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP, you've got to know ISIS inside and out. There are many similarities between ISIS and OSPF, but one major difference is that ISIS has three different types of routers - Level 1 (L1), Level 2 (L2), and L1 / L2.L1 routers are contained in a single area, and are connected to other areas by an L1 / L2 router. The L1 uses the L1 / L2 router as a default gateway to reach destinations contained in other areas, much like an OSPF stub router uses the ABR as a default gateway.L1 routers have no specific routing table entries regarding any destination outside their own area; they will use an L1 / L2 router as a default gateway to reach any external networks. ISIS L1 routers in the same area must synchronize their databases with each other.Just as we have L1 routers, we also have L2 routers. Anytime we're routing between areas (inter-area routing), an L2 or L1 / L2 router must be involved. All L2 routers will have synchronized databases as well.Both L1 and L2 routers send out their own hellos. As with OSPF, hello packets allow ISIS routers to form adjacencies. The key difference here is that L1 routers send out L1 hellos, and L2 routers send out L2 hellos. If you have an L1 router and an L2 router on the same link, they will not form an adjacency.An ISIS router can act as an L1 and an L2 router at the same time; these routers are L1 / L2 routers. An L1 / L2 router can have neighbors in separate ISIS areas. The L1 / L2 router will have two separate databases, though - one for L1 routes and another for L2 routes. L1 / L2 is the default setting for Cisco routers running ISIS. The L1 / L2 router is the router that makes it possible for an L1 router to send data to another area.In the next part of my ISIS tutorial, we'll take a more detailed look at those ISIS hellos!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #bsci #isis #router #type #L1 #L2 #L1 / L2 #adjacency #hello #pass #exam #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: IGRP And Equal Cost Load Balancing* unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: IGRP And Equal Cost Load Balancing***

To pass the CCNA exam, you've got to know the role of the bandwidth command with IGRP and EIGRP and when to use it. In this tutorial, we'll configure IGRP over a frame relay hub-and-spoke network using the following networks:R1 (the hub), R2, and R3 are running IGRP over the 172.12.123.0 / 24 network. This is a T1 line.R1 and R3 are also connected on a different subnet, 172.12.13.0 / 24. The bandwidth of this connection is 512 KBPS.R2 and R3 are also connected by an Ethernet segment, 172.23.0.0 / 16.We'll configure IGRP on R1, R2, and R3 with the router igrp 1 command. IGRP will run on all interfaces in the 172.12.0.0 and 172.23.0.0 network.R1#conf tR1(config)#router igrp 1R1(config-router)#network 172.12.0.0The ?1? in the router igrp command refers to the Autonomous System (AS). IGRP is a classful routing protocol, so wildcard masks are not used in the network statements.R2#conf tR2(config-if)#router igrp 1R2(config-router)#network 172.12.0.0R2(config-router)#network 172.23.0.0R3#conf tR3(config-if)#router igrp 1R3(config-router)#network 172.12.0.0R3(config-router)#network 172.23.0.0Run show ip route on R1. R1 will see three equal-cost paths to the Ethernet network. IGRP supports load-sharing over up to four equal-cost paths by default, so all three paths appear in the routing table. R1 will also see a route to the loopback address on R2 and two routes to the loopback address on R3. (You can also run show ip route igrp in order to see only the IGRP routes.)R1#show ip route igrpI 172.23.0.0 / 16 [100 / 8576] via 172.12.123.2, 00:00:02, Serial0[100 / 8576] via 172.12.13.3, 00:00:02, Serial1[100 / 8576] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:01, Serial0Remember that the numbers in the brackets following the network number in the routes are the Administrative Distance and the IGRP metric, in that order.Note that classful masks are in use. IGRP does not support variable-length subnet masks (VLSM).There are two serial connections between R1 and R3. IGRP is assuming that both lines are T1 lines, running at 1544 KBPS. The 172.12.13.0 network is participating in equal-cost load sharing because of IGRP?s bandwidth assumption - that all serial interfaces are connected to T1 lines.To give IGRP a more accurate picture of the network?s bandwidth, configure bandwidth 512 on R1 and R3?s Serial1 interface (the interfaces on the 172.12.13.0 network).R1#conf tR1(config)#interface serial1R1(config-if)#bandwidth 512R3#conf tR3(config)#interface serial 1R3(config-if)#bandwidth 512IGRP?s assumption that all serial lines run at 1544 KBPS is overridden by the bandwidth 512 command. IGRP now believes this line runs at 512 KBPS.To see the effect of this command, clear your routing table on R1.R1#clear ip route *R1#show ip route igrpI 172.23.0.0 / 16 [100 / 8576] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:24, Serial0 / 0[100 / 8576] via 172.12.123.2, 00:00:17, Serial0 / 0The routing table is cleared with clear ip route *. To see only the routes received in IGRP updates instead of the entire table, run show ip route igrp.One of the paths to 172.23.0.0 is now gone - the route that went through the 172.12.13.0 network. Now that IGRP sees that link as slower than the others, equal-cost load balancing will not occur over the 172.12.13.0 network.It?s important to understand that the bandwidth command does not actually change the bandwidth of the connection; it changes IGRP?s assumption of what the bandwidth is.In the next part of this IGRP load-balancing tutorial, we'll take a look at how to configure unequal-cost load balancing.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #certification #exam #pass #igrp #eigrp #load #sharing #equal #unequal #cost #bandwidth
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