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@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: ISDN And Mul unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: ISDN And Multilink PPP***

ISDN is a huge topic on both your Cisco CCNA and BCRAN CCNP exams. While many ISDN topics seem straightforward, it?s the details that make the difference in the exam room and working with ISDN in production networks. Configuring and troubleshooting multilink PPP is just one of the skills you?ll need to pass both of these demanding exams.With BRI, we've got two B-channels to carry data, and both of them have a 64-kbps capacity. You might think it would be a good idea to have both channels in operation before one reaches capacity, and it is a great idea Problem is, it's not a default behavior of ISDN. The second b-channel will not begin to carry traffic until the first one reaches capacity.With Multilink PPP (MLP), a bandwidth capacity can be set that will allow the second b-channel to bear data before the first channel reaches capacity. The configuration for MLP is simple, but often misconfigured. We'll use our good friend IOS Help to verify the measurement this command uses.Enabling MLP is a three-step process:Enable PPP on the linkEnable MLP with the command ppp multilinkDefine the threshold at which the second b-channel should start carrying data with the dialer load-threshold command.Let's say you wanted the second b-channel to start carrying data when the first channel reaches 75% of capacity. It would make sense that the command to do so would be dialer load-threshold 75... but it's not.R1(config)#int bri0R1(config-if)#ppp multilinkR1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold ? Load threshold to place another callThe dialer load-threshold value is based on 255, not 100. To have this command bring the line up at a certain percentage, multiply that percentage in decimal format by 255. Below, I multiplied 255 by .75 (75%) to arrive at 191.R1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold 191 ?either Threshold decision based on max of inbound and outbound trafficinbound Threshold decision based on inbound traffic onlyoutbound Threshold decision based on outbound traffic onlyR1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold 191 eitherAs illustrated by IOS Help in the above configuration, dialer load-threshold has additional options as well. You can configure the interface to consider only incoming, outgoing, or all traffic when calculating when to bring the next channel up.Configuring Multilink PPP is just one of the skills you?ll need to earn your CCNA and pass the CCNP BCRAN exam. Don?t underestimate ISDN on Cisco?s certification exams!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #cisco #certification #ccnp #bcran #isdn #multilink #ppp #encapsulation #bri #pass #free #ccie
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@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP / BCMSN Exam Review: Trunking And Trunk unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP / BCMSN Exam Review: Trunking And Trunking Protocols***

To earn your CCNA or CCNP certification, you've got to understand the basics of trunking. This isn't just a CCNA topic - you must have an advanced understanding of trunking and etherchannels to pass the BCMSN exam and earn your CCNP as well. Before we address those advanced topics, though, you need to master the fundamentals!A trunk allows inter-VLAN traffic to flow between directly connected switches. By default, a trunk port is a member of all VLANs, so traffic for any and all VLANs can travel across this trunk. That includes broadcast traffic!The default mode of a switch port does differ between models, so always check your documentation. On Cisco 2950 switches, every single port is in dynamic desirable mode by default, meaning that every port is actively attempting to trunk. On these switches, the only action needed from us is to physically connect them with a crossover cable. In just a few seconds, the port light turns green and the trunk is up and running. The command show interface trunk will verify trunking.How does the receiving switch know what VLAN the frame belongs to? The frames are tagged by the transmitting switch with a VLAN ID, reflecting the number of the VLAN whose member ports should receive this frame. When the frame arrives at the remote switch, that switch will examine this ID and then forward the frame appropriately.There are two major trunking protocols you must understand and compare successfully, those being ISL and IEEE 802.1Q. Let's take a look at the details of ISL first.ISL is a Cisco-proprietary trunking protocol, making it unsuitable for a multivendor environment. That's one drawback, but there are others. ISL will place both a header and trailer onto the frame, encapsulating it. This increases the overhead on the trunk line.You know that the default VLAN is also known as the "native VLAN", and another drawback to ISL is that ISL does not use the concept of the native VLAN. This means that every single frame transmitted across the trunk will be encapsulated.The 26-byte header that is added to the frame by ISL contains the VLAN ID; the 4-byte trailer contains a Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) value. The CRC is a frame validity scheme that checks the frame's integrity.In turn, this encapsulation leads to another potential issue. ISL encapsulation adds 30 bytes total to the size of the frame, potentially making them too large for the switch to handle. (The maximum size for an Ethernet frame is 1518 bytes.)IEEE 802.1q differs substantially from ISL. In contrast to ISL, dot1q does not encapsulate frames. A 4-byte header is added to the frame, resulting in less overhead than ISL. If the frame is destined for hosts residing in the native VLAN, that header isn't added. Since the header is only 4 bytes in size, and isn't even placed on every frame, using dot1q lessens the chance of oversized frames. When the remote port receives an untagged frame, the switch knows that these untagged frames are destined for the native VLAN.Knowing the details is the difference between passing and failing your CCNA and CCNP exams. Keep studying, get some hands-on practice, and you?re on your way to Cisco certification success!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #ccnp #bcmsn #trunking #vlan #native #isl #ieee #dot1q #encapsulation #header #exam
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: Configuring Dialer Pr unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: Configuring Dialer Profiles***

The most common method of configuring ISDN is with dialer maps, but dial information can also be configured on a logical interface. To pass the CCNA exam, you must know how to configure and troubleshoot both dialer maps and dialer profiles.Dialer Profiles allow different dialing information to be configured onto logical interfaces. The logical interfaces may have different dialing destinations, different remote router names, etc., but they?ll be using the same physical interface.Dialer strings are used on dialer profiles. Note that each logical interface has a different IP address, a different remote router to dial, and a different dialer string, but they will be using the same physical interface to dial out. The commands dialer pool and dialer pool-member are used to link the logical and physical interfaces. The number following each command must match for the logical interface to correctly bind to the physical interface.R1(config)#interface dialer0R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0R1(config-if)#encapsulation pppR1(config-if)#dialer remote-name Remote0R1(config-if)#dialer pool 1< places logical interface into dialer pool >R1(config-if)#dialer string 5551212< number dialed to contact router Remote0 >R1(config-if)#dialer-group 1< links logical interface to dialer-list 1 >R1(config)#interface dialer1R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0R1(config-if)#encapsulation pppR1(config-if)#dialer remote-name Remote1R1(config-if)#dialer pool 1R1(config-if)#dialer string 5551234R1(config-if)#dialer-group 1R1(config)#interface bri0R1(config-if)#no ip address< With dialer profiles, IP addresses are assigned to logical interfaces. >R1(config-if)#encapsulation ppp< The encapsulation type is place on both the logical and physical interfaces.>R1(config-if)#dialer pool-member 1< The number associated with this command should match the number configured with the dialer pool number on the logical dialer interfaces. >R1(config-if)#isdn spid1 0835866101R1(config-if)#isdn spid2 0835866301When configuring dialer profiles, the encapsulation type should be placed on both the physical BRI interface and the logical dialer interfaces. The SPIDs are configured on the physical interface as well.Configuring dialer profiles can be a little tricky at first, and the best way to master this skill is to get real hands-on practice in your own CCNA / CCNP home lab or a rack rental service. Either way, hands-on is the best practice. Best of luck in your CCNA studies!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #certification #pass #exam #isdn #dialer #profile #free #tutorial #map #phone #bri #ccnp
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: Five ISDN Details To Remember*** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: Five ISDN Details To Remember***

CCNA exam success depends on mastering many technologies that are new to you, and few exam topics have more details than ISDN. ISDN isn't just for your CCNA exam studies, though. While ISDN is dismissed by many, the fact is that there are many small and mid-size networks out there that use ISDN as their backup to frame relay. Some of these companies have spoke networks that use ISDN to connect to their hub as well, so it's a great idea to know ISDN configuration and troubleshooting for your real-world career as well as passing the CCNA. With that in mind, let's take a look at five common ISDN errors and how to avoid them.With dialer map statements, remember that the phone number you put in the dialer map is the phone number of the remote router, not the local one. Look at it this way - if you want to call a friend on your cell, you don't pick up your cell and dial your own number!Speaking of dialer map statements, don't forget the all-important broadcast option at the end of the command:R1(config-if)#dialer map ip 172.12.21.1 name R2 broadcast 5555555The router will accept that command without the "broadcast" option, but routing protocol updates and hellos would not be able to travel across the line. (This command is also needed in frame relay map statements to allow broadcasts and multicasts to be transmitted.)PAP is PPP's clear-text authentication scheme, and clear text is a really bad idea. But if you do have to configure it, don't forget that PAP requires additional configuration -the ppp pap sent-username command.R1(config-if)#ppp pap sent-username R1 password CISCOMust set encapsulation to PPP before using PPP subcommandsR1(config-if)#The error message we got while configuring the sent-username command is another important reminder - by default, a BRI line is running HDLC, not PPP. Since HDLC doesn't allow us to use either PAP or CHAP, we'll need to set the link to PPP with the encapsulation ppp command.R1(config-if)#encapsulation pppR1(config-if)#ppp authentication papR1(config-if)#ppp pap sent-username R1 password CISCOBut before we configure any of this information, we should configure the ISDN switch-type. Why? Because without the switch-type configuration, it doesn't matter that we avoid the other four errors - the line will not come up. Configure the switch-type with the "isdn switch-type" command, and then verify it with "show isdn status".R1(config)#isdn switch-type basic-niR1#show isdn statusGlobal ISDN Switchtype = basic-ni (output of this command cut here for clarity)If you forget this part of the configuration, the output of show isdn status wastes no time in reminding you!R1#show isdn status**** No Global ISDN Switchtype currently defined ****ISDN is an important part of your CCNA studies, and this knowledge still comes in handy in production networks as well. Keep studying, notice the details, run those debugs, and you'll be a CCNA before you know it!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #exam #isdn #bri #pass #free #tutorial #status #bri #interface #dialer #profile #ppp
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