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@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 2 tygodnie temu
***Personal Trainer - How Do I Choose The Right Person To Help Me unimarter UniMarter
***Personal Trainer - How Do I Choose The Right Person To Help Me Achieve My Goals?***

If you're a personal trainer - it's most likely this article is going to offend you. So, be warned.If you've sticked around long enough on my website, you would have realised by now that I'm not really a big fan of personal trainers. Now, don't get me wrong - this is not because I don't believe they are good, but mainly because I believe there are so many personal trainers out there, who despite the certification they possess, still lack the experience, the knowledge, and most importantly - the personal passion for the pursuit of physical fitness.I've always believed that a personal trainer needs to walk the walk, and talk the talk! No point trying to motivate someone to lose weight if you're a fat ass yourself, don't you think? Take a look at the available personal trainers at your gym - how fit are they? Or just how full of bullshit are they? If they're supposedly good at helping you 'bulk up' and help you gain muscle - do their physiques themselves show off their capability? Or if their expertise is 'weight loss', are they so lean and fit that they deserve to be admired? Cos if they're overweight and flabby themselves, trust me - that simply shows the amount of motivation that they themselves lack to improve their very own physique. Don't agree with me? Too bad then.Personally, I myself have never paid for the services of a personal trainer mainly because I've always believed that I don't see the necessity for me to have one. I think I know how to eat right, I know what to do at the gym to achieve my goals, and I know how to motivate myself for my workouts. I almost ALWAYS have productive workouts due to my strict focus, discipline, and mental preparation before every workout, plus - the music on my MP3 player helps me to stay in 'my own world' when I’m working out and in giving 101%. On top of all that, I see results.However, for those of you who are in need of a little extra help - perhaps you’re a little clueless as to what to do at the gym? Or in need of some guidance, tailored nutritional advice, workout routines 100% tailored especially for you, and if you have the money to spare - then by all means, do get yourself a personal trainer! Not only would they would be able to guide you, but they would help keep your progress in check and take you to new levels of awareness - hopefully helping you succeed in reaching your fitness goals.The problem, however, in my opinion (especially here in my country Malaysia) is the lack of properly qualified personal trainers. Though they exist somewhere out there, they're not easy to find - especially if you're new to the gym and are totally clueless. Plus, it's easy to be 'seduced' by the sweet talk of the personal trainer you get through your 'complimentary sessions' at the gym. If you ask me, most of them are just out there to meet their sales targets and make a living. Are they really, honestly concerned if you meet your goals? Would they call you to talk to you, be your friend, or allow you to call them anytime at all you have a doubt, or if you're worried or confused on what to eat?Disgustingly, some personal trainers I've known are only interested to get into the skirts of their clients (believe me). I know one personal trainer from a particular branch at my gym who used to offer my female friend ENDLESS FREE SESSIONS… in exchange for a date! And at the end of every session - he would ask her out. Of course, she never really agreed - but he would even try to talk and hint naughty thoughts at her.. and I’m sure she's not the only one. Why is it that all the females seem to get the 'FREE SESSIONS' even if they don't qualify for it? Why don't they approach the men to give free sessions instead? When they train their female clients, they touch them more, they help them more, they get closer to them physically. I don't see them doing the same to their male clients. How come? I've got nothing to say.I've always personally believed that a personal trainer needs more than a 'certification'. They need the passion, the experience (this is so important), and the gifted ability to simply be able to motivate even the laziest person on earth. Does someone like this exist? Of course they do! You just need to look harder.Josh Stone, also known as DM, is the author behind the site http: / / www.dailymuscle.com which offers the author's personal views on real-life fitness, bodybuilding, sports nutrition, cardio, fat loss, training information, and on all things that surrounds fitness.

#personaltrainer #fitness #exercise #motivation #trainer #muscle #certification #health #muscle
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Niania elektroniczna BEURER BY33 AGD małe > DLA DZIECKA > Nianie elektroniczne
DZIECI I NIEMOWLĘTA//UNIMARTER

Niania elektroniczna BEURER BY33

Dzieci i niemowlęta > Bezpieczeństwo niemowląt > Nianie elektroniczne
Oczyszczacz BEURER LR 300 AGD małe > DO DOMU > Oczyszczacze powietrza
DOM I OGRÓD//UNIMARTER

Oczyszczacz BEURER LR 300

Dom i ogród > Sprzęt AGD > Ogrzewanie, wentylacja i klimatyzacja > Oczyszczacze powietrza
Urządzenie do aromaterapii BEURER LA 20 AGD małe > DO DOMU > Nawilżacze powietrza
DOM I OGRÓD//UNIMARTER

Urządzenie do aromaterapii BEURER LA 20

Dom i ogród > Sprzęt AGD > Urządzenia do kontroli klimatu > Nawilżacze
Aparat do masażu Beurer MG 70 Masażer AGD małe > ZDROWIE I URODA > Masażery i maty masujące
ZDROWIE I URODA//UNIMARTER

Aparat do masażu Beurer MG 70 Masażer

Zdrowie i uroda > Higiena osobista > Masaż i relaks > Masażery
Pulsometr BEURER PM 15 AGD małe > ZDROWIE I URODA > Ciśnieniomierze
ZDROWIE I URODA//UNIMARTER

Pulsometr BEURER PM 15

Zdrowie i uroda > Opieka zdrowotna > Monitory funkcji życiowych > Ciśnieniomierze
BEURER Jonowy włosów 2200 W HC 80 Małe AGD > Pielęgnacja osobista > Suszarki do włosów
//UNIMARTER

BEURER Jonowy włosów 2200 W HC 80

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@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 2 tygodnie temu
***Finding a Nutrition Course Online*** With more and more p unimarter UniMarter
***Finding a Nutrition Course Online***

With more and more people dealing with chronic illnesses, individuals are looking to learn about nutrition and really understand the principals behind how to care for each and every cell of the body through proper nutrition. The pursuit of education about nutrition is made confusing with the publication of sensationalized books on miracle cures and fad diets which have little basis in science and quickly show themselves to do more harm than good. As many schools do not have open courses on nutrition, finding a nutrition course online has become the best source of education for people wishing to learn more about health and nutrition.When looking for a nutrition course online, first seek out the approach of the school. What is their curriculum? What is the approach of their teaching? Do you get materials to review on your own or is all of the information exclusively available online? When you complete the course, what sort of degree do you receive and is it accredited? If you are learning about nutrition for your own application an online nutrition course that is not accredited may not be a concern to you, but what if you decide to make a new career with the application of your knowledge? Finding a nutrition course online, from an accredited school, could be a very important issue.The next factor to consider for your nutrition course online is, when the classes are held and how long you have to complete the program. If you have a busy schedule it may be difficult to schedule regular online lectures if they are held live. Being able to watch archive lectures or watching DVDs allows you to work the class work into your personal schedule.Learning about nutrition can be a very rewarding experience and is something from which you can truly benefit. But keep in mind that nutrition is the study of the science of providing nourishment to the body and is more complex than a simple series of eating guidelines. When you take a nutrition course online, expect to learn a lot and expect it to be a challenging, but very rewarding experience.Dave Saunders is a professional lecturer, and certified nutritional educator. He enjoys creating interconnections through his writings and lectures to help others create context and see new discoveries and technologies in more a practical light. You can find out more about new discoveries in health and nutrition at http: / / www.glycoboy.com

#NutritionCourseOnline #health #education #degree #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 2 tygodnie temu
***Insights into the Benefits of Yoga*** The practice of Yog unimarter UniMarter
***Insights into the Benefits of Yoga***

The practice of Yoga has been used for centuries to promote a sense of physical and spiritual well-being. Although the origins of Yoga are shrouded in mystery, it is generally accepted to have begun at the dawn of civilization some 5000 years ago. teksty number of respected scholars have suggested that Yoga grew out of the shamanistic culture of Mehgarh, located in the region now known as Afghanistan. In fact, many facets of Hindu culture have their roots in Mehgarh.The principle goal of the practice of Yoga is to assist practitioners in the transcendence of the human condition. It was an attempt to discern the order of the cosmos, and to apply those principles to daily living. Yoga has been linked to the Indus-Sarasvati civilization, which was one of the oldest and most advanced of the ancient cultures. This civilization also gave birth to some of the oldest scriptures ever discovered in modern times. The Vedas are considered by many as a form of divine revelation, and contain many references to a higher power and to the practice of Yoga.On the physical plain, Yoga has shown incredible promise in treating and managing many illnesses. The practice of Yoga has a number of physical benefits for practitioners. It facilitates flexibility, and assists in the lubrication of joints, tendons, and ligaments. Many of the poses and positions work to massage the organs, thus stimulating the body's detoxification process. The physical benefits of Yoga are often considered secondary to the spiritual development. Yoga has the incredible ability to bring into harmony the physical and the spiritual elements of the individual experience.Meditation also plays a significant role in Yoga. By combining intense meditation with specialized physical exercise, practitioners are able to achieve a unity of body, mind, and soul. The intent is to create a sense of balance and harmony, both internally and externally. The emotional calmness associated with meditation works to reduce stress, which is considered by many as one of the root causes of physical illness. The primary goal of Yoga is to empower the individual to transcend the physical world and to achieve a sense of enlightenment or self-realization. For those interested in understanding and fully realizing the oneness of all things, a commitment to the principles and practice of Yoga will undoubtedly unlock the secrets of the cosmos in all their wondrous glory.Brodi Saatpha has been practicing Yoga for a number of years. When she is not striving to transcend reality, she writes for yoga-insight.com – an enlightening and refreshing website with information about the history of yoga, yoga certification, worldwide yoga retreats and more.

#yoga #meditate #benifits #health #transcendence #mehgarh #history #workout #meditation #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***CCNA / MCSE / CCNP Certification: Making Failure Work For unimarter UniMarter
***CCNA / MCSE / CCNP Certification: Making Failure Work For You***

Whether you're on the road to the CCNA, CCNP, MCSE, or you're on any other computer certification track, the odds are that sooner or later, you're going to fail an exam. It's happened to almost all of us, yours truly included. What you have to keep in mind in these times is that success is not a straight line. You've probably seen charts showing the growth of an industry or a business -- you know, the ones that go from left to right, and look kind of jagged. The line goes up for a while, then down a bit, then up some more, then down a little.The key? While every business has its setbacks, the net result is that the line goes up and progress is made. That's how you want your certification pursuit and your career to go as well - upward!I'm not asking you to be happy about failing an exam. You're allowed to get mad for a few minutes, vow to never take another exam again, and be disappointed. What you're not allowed to do is stay that way.If you put your books away in a fit of anger, get them out. If you took some time off, it's time to get back to work. Again, there's nothing wrong with being unhappy about failing an exam. It's how you handle that failure that counts. No inventor, executive, or entrepreneur has ever been right 100% of the time. Learn something from your failure. Was your study time quality study time? Did you get some hands-on practice with the technology you're studying? Asking yourself these questions can be tough, but it can be highly valuable in making sure you don't fail the next time. And there must be a next time - because the one thing you cannot do is quit.Besides, take it from someone who's been there - your temporary failure makes your eventual success that much sweeter.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #cisco #certification #exam #fail #mcse #ccnp #icnd #intro #pass #free #tutorial #chris #bryant
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: 10 ISIS Details You Must K unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: 10 ISIS Details You Must Know!***

Earning your CCNP certification and passing the BSCI exam depends on knowing the details of many Cisco technologies, ISIS chief among them. To help you prepare for exam success, here's a list of ISIS terminology and basic concepts that will help you pass this tough exam. Enjoy!ISIS Terms:Domain: section of the network under common administrative controlArea: logical segment of the network composed of contiguous routers and their data linksIntermediate System: A router.End System: A host device.The four levels of ISIS routing:Level 0: ES-IS routing in the same subnet.Level 1: IS-IS routing in the same area.Level 2: IS-IS routing in the same domain.Level 3: Inter-domain routing performed by InterDomain Routing Protocol (IDRP).ISIS Adjacency Possibilities:L1: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area and any L1 / L2 in the same area.L2: Can form adjacency with any L2 in any area, and with an L1 / L2 in any area.L1 / L2: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area, L1 / L2 in any area, and L2 in any area.A router interface?s SNPA (Subnetwork Point Of Attachment) is its highest DLCI number if it?s on a Frame network, and its MAC address if the interface is on an Ethernet segment.ISIS Hello Types:ESH: ES Hello ? Sent by End Systems to discover a router.ISH: IS Hello ? Send by Intermediate Systems to announce their presence. End Systems listen for these.IIH: IS-to-IS Hello ? Send by one IS to be heard by another IS. These hellos makes IS-IS adjacencies possible.Best of luck on your CCNP exams!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #certification #cisco #isis #evel #router #end #system #iis #hello #type #adjacency #level -1
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: ISDN And Mul unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: ISDN And Multilink PPP***

ISDN is a huge topic on both your Cisco CCNA and BCRAN CCNP exams. While many ISDN topics seem straightforward, it?s the details that make the difference in the exam room and working with ISDN in production networks. Configuring and troubleshooting multilink PPP is just one of the skills you?ll need to pass both of these demanding exams.With BRI, we've got two B-channels to carry data, and both of them have a 64-kbps capacity. You might think it would be a good idea to have both channels in operation before one reaches capacity, and it is a great idea Problem is, it's not a default behavior of ISDN. The second b-channel will not begin to carry traffic until the first one reaches capacity.With Multilink PPP (MLP), a bandwidth capacity can be set that will allow the second b-channel to bear data before the first channel reaches capacity. The configuration for MLP is simple, but often misconfigured. We'll use our good friend IOS Help to verify the measurement this command uses.Enabling MLP is a three-step process:Enable PPP on the linkEnable MLP with the command ppp multilinkDefine the threshold at which the second b-channel should start carrying data with the dialer load-threshold command.Let's say you wanted the second b-channel to start carrying data when the first channel reaches 75% of capacity. It would make sense that the command to do so would be dialer load-threshold 75... but it's not.R1(config)#int bri0R1(config-if)#ppp multilinkR1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold ? Load threshold to place another callThe dialer load-threshold value is based on 255, not 100. To have this command bring the line up at a certain percentage, multiply that percentage in decimal format by 255. Below, I multiplied 255 by .75 (75%) to arrive at 191.R1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold 191 ?either Threshold decision based on max of inbound and outbound trafficinbound Threshold decision based on inbound traffic onlyoutbound Threshold decision based on outbound traffic onlyR1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold 191 eitherAs illustrated by IOS Help in the above configuration, dialer load-threshold has additional options as well. You can configure the interface to consider only incoming, outgoing, or all traffic when calculating when to bring the next channel up.Configuring Multilink PPP is just one of the skills you?ll need to earn your CCNA and pass the CCNP BCRAN exam. Don?t underestimate ISDN on Cisco?s certification exams!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #cisco #certification #ccnp #bcran #isdn #multilink #ppp #encapsulation #bri #pass #free #ccie
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: Port-Based Authentica unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: Port-Based Authentication***

To pass your CCNA exam and earn this coveted certification, you must understand the details of port-based authentication. This knowledge has a great deal of value in production networks as well, since this authentication scheme is regularly implemented. Let's take a look at this particular CCNA skill.Consider a situation where you have a server that will be connected to your switch, and you want the port to shut down if a device with a different MAC address that that of the switch attempts to connect to that port. You could also have a situation where you have someone who has a connection to a switch port in his office, and he wants to make sure that only his laptop can use that port.Both of these examples are real-world situations, and there are two solutions for each. First, we could create a static MAC entry for that particular switch port. I don't recommend this, mainly because both you and I have better things to do than manage static MAC entries. The better solution is to configure port-based authentication on the switch.The Cisco switch uses MAC addresses to enforce port security. With port security, only devices with certain MAC addresses can connect to the port successfully. This is another reason source MACs are looked at before the destination MAC is examined. If the source MAC is non-secure and port-based authentication is in effect, the destination does not matter, as the frame will not be forwarded. In essence, the source MAC address serves as the password.MAC addresses that are allowed to successfully communicate with the switch port are secure MAC addresses. The default number of secure MAC addresses is 1, but a maximum of 132 secure MACs can be configured.When a non-secure MAC address attempts to communicate with the switch port, one of three actions will occur, depending on the port security mode. In Protect mode, frames with non-secure MAC addresses are dropped. There is no notification that a violation has occurred. The port will continue to switch frames for the secure MAC address.In Restrict mode, the same action is taken, but a syslog message is logged via SNMP, which is a messaging protocol used by Cisco routers.In Shutdown mode, the interface goes into error-disabled state, the port LED will go out, and a syslog message is logged. The port has to be manually reopened. Shutdown mode is the default port-security mode.Port-based authentication is just one of the many switching skills you'll have to demonstrate to earn your CCNA certification. Make sure you know the basics shown here, including the action of each particular mode, and you're on your way to CCNA exam success!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #cisco #certification #switch #port #based #authentication #free #pass #exam #secure #mac #ccie
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA Certification: Defining Broadcast Domains*** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Certification: Defining Broadcast Domains***

When you're studying to pass the CCNA exam and earn your certification, you're introduced to a great many terms that are either totally new to you or seem familiar, but you're not quite sure what they are. The term "broadcast domain" falls into the latter category for many CCNA candidates.A broadcast domain is simply the group of end hosts that will receive a broadcast sent out by a given host. For example, if there are ten host devices connected to a switch and one of them sends a broadcast, the other nine devices will receive the broadcast. All of those devices are in the same broadcast domain.Of course, we probably don't want every device in a network receiving every single broadcast sent out by any other device in the network! This is why we need to know what devices can create multiple, smaller broadcast domains. Doing so allows us to limit the broadcasts traveling around our network - and you might be surprised how much traffic on some networks consists of unnecessary broadcasts.Using the OSI model, we find devices such as hubs and repeaters at Layer One. This is the Physical layer, and devices at this layer have no effect on broadcast domains.At Layer Two, we've got switches and bridges. By default, a switch has no effect on broadcast domains; CCNA candidates know that a switch will forward a broadcast out every single port on that switch except the one upon which it was received. However, Cisco switches allow the creation of Virtual Local Area Networks, or VLANs, that are logical segments of the network. A broadcast sent by one host in a VLAN will not be forwarded out every other port on the switch. That broadcast will be forwarded only out ports that are members of the same VLAN as the host device that sent it.The good news is that broadcast traffic will not be forwarded between VLANs. The bad news is that no inter-VLAN traffic at all is allowed by default! You may actually want this in some cases, but generally you're going to want inter-VLAN traffic. This requires the use of a router or other Layer 3 device such as a Layer 3 Switch. (Layer 3 Switches are becoming more popular every day. Basically, it's a switch that can also run routing protocols. These switches are not tested on the CCNA exam.)That router we just talked about also defines broadcast domains. Routers do not forward broadcasts, so broadcast domains are defined by routers with no additional configuration.Knowing how broadcasts travel across your network, and how they can be controlled, is an important part of being a CCNA and of being a superior network administrator. Best of luck to you in both of these pursuits!About The Author
Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage (www.thebryantadvantage.com), home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can now get a FREE CCNA and CCNP exam question sent to your email inbox every day! Get your CCNA certification with The Bryant Advantage!

#CCNAexam #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Exam Tutorial: Testing ISDN Links Without unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Exam Tutorial: Testing ISDN Links Without Pings***

To earn your Cisco CCNA and CCNP certifications, you've got to master ISDN - and despite what some people say, there's still a lot of ISDN out there that needs to be supported. And when it comes to troubleshooting ISDN, there's a lot to look at. Is the correct ISDN switchtype configured? Are the dialer map statements correct? What about the dialer-group and dialer-list commands? And that's just the start.I always say that all troubleshooting starts at Layer 1, the Physical layer of the OSI model. The usual method of troubleshooting ISDN is sending pings across the link, but the connection can be tested without using pings or even before assigning IP addresses to the BRI interfaces!It's a good idea to place these test calls before configuring the interfaces - that way, you know you've got a valid connection before beginning the configuration (and there's a lot of config to go along with ISDN!)To place a test call without using pings, use the isdn call interface command.R1#isdn call interface bri0 8358662R1#03:54:43: BR0 DDR: Attempting to dial 835866203:54:43: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up03:54:44: BR0:1 DDR: dialer protocol up03:54:45: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up03:54:49: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 8358662 R2To tear the test call down correctly, use isdn disconnect interface. IOS Help displays the options with this command.R1#isdn disconnect interface bri 0 ?all Disconnect the data call(s) on all b channelsb1 Disconnect the data call on b1 channelb2 Disconnect the data call on b2 channelR1#isdn disconnect interface bri 0 all03:58:36: BR0:1 DDR: disconnecting call03:58:36: BR0:2 DDR: disconnecting call03:58:36: %ISDN-6-DISCONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 disconnected from 8358662
R2, call lasted 20 seconds03:58:36: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to down03:58:36: BR0:1 DDR: disconnecting call03:58:37: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to downI say "correctly" because the one thing you don't want to do to end an ISDN call, test or otherwise, is just shut the interface. Telcos don't like it, and ISDN lab devices like it even less. Always let the d-channel do its work and tear the call down in an orderly fashion - don't just cut it off by shutting the interface down.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #isdn #bri #test #call #disconnect #ping #d #b #channel #pass #free #exam #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Frame Relay BECNs and unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Frame Relay BECNs and FECNs***

BECNs and FECNs aren't just important to know for your Cisco CCNA and CCNP certification exams - they're an important part of detecting congestion on a Frame Relay network and allowing the network to dynamically adjust its transmission rate when congestion is encountered.The Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN, pronounced "feckon") bit is set to zero by default, and will be set to 1 if congestion was experienced by the frame in the direction in which the frame was traveling. A DCE (frame relay switch) will set this bit, and a DTE (router) will receive it, and see that congestion was encountered along the frame's path.If network congestion exists in the opposite direction in which the frame was traveling, the Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN, pronounced "beckon") will be set to 1 by a DCE.If this is your first time working with BECNs and FECNs, you might wonder why the BECN even exists - after all, why send a "backwards" notification? The BECN is actually the most important part of this entire process, since it's the BECN bit that indicates to the sender that it needs to slow down!For example, frames sent from Kansas City to Green Bay encounter congestion in the FR cloud. A Frame Switch sets the FECN bit to 1. In order to alert KC that it's sending data too fast, GB will send return frames with the BECN bit set. When KC sees the BECN bit is set to 1, the KC router knows that the congestion occurred when frames were sent from KC to GB.Frame Relay BECN Adaptive Shaping allows a router to dynamically throttle back on its transmission rate if it receives frames from the remote host with the BECN bit set. In this case, KC sees that the traffic it's sending to GB is encountering congestion, because the traffic coming back from GB has the BECN bit set. If BECN Adaptive Shaping is running on KC, that router will adjust to this congestion by slowing its transmission rate. When the BECNs stop coming in from GB, KC will begin to send at a faster rate.BECN Adaptive Shaping is configured as follows:KC(config)#int s0KC(config-if)#frame-relay adaptive-shaping becnTo see how many frames are coming in and going out with the BECN and FECN bits set, run show frame pvc.R3#show frame pvc< some output removed for clarity >input pkts 306 output pkts 609 in bytes 45566out bytes 79364 dropped pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0out bcast pkts 568 out bcast bytes 75128pvc create time 01:26:27, last time pvc status changed 01:26:27Just watch the "in"s and "out"s of BECN, FECN, and DE in both the exam room and your production networks!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #certification #ccnp #exam #frame #relay #becn #fecn #de #congestion #bryant #advantage
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Frame Relay Encapsula unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Frame Relay Encapsulation Types***

When you're studying to pass the Cisco CCNA and CCNP certification exams, you quickly learn that there's always something else to learn. (You'll really pick up on this in your CCIE studies, trust me!) Today we'll take a look at an often-overlooked topic in Frame Relay, the encapsulation type. You don't exactly change this on a daily basis in production networks (not if you want to stay employed, anyway!), but it's an important exam topic that you must be familiar with.The DCE and DTE must agree on the LMI type, but there's another value that must be agreed upon by the two DTEs serving as the endpoints of the VC. The Frame encapsulation can be left at the default of Cisco (which is Cisco-proprietary), or it can be changed to the industry-standard IETF, as shown below. If a non-Cisco router is the remote endpoint, IETF encapsulation must be used. Note that the default of Cisco isn't listed as an option by IOS Help, so you better know that one by heart!R1(config)#int s0R1(config-if)#encap frame ?ietf Use RFC1490 / RFC2427 encapsulationR1(config-if)#encap frame ietfWhat if a physical interface is in use and some remote hosts require Cisco encapsulation and others require IETF? The encapsulation type can be configured on a per-PVC basis as well. One encap type can be used on the interface, and any map statements that require a different encap type can have that specified in the appropriate map statement. In the following example, all PVCs will use the default Cisco encapsulation type except for PVC 115. The frame map statement using that PVC has ietf specified.R1(config)#int s0 / 0R1(config-if)#encap frameR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.3 123 broadcastR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 122 ietf broadcastshow frame map shows us that the mapping to DLCI 123 is using Cisco encapsulation, and DLCI 122 is using IETF.R1#show frame mapSerial0 (up): ip 172.12.123.3 dlci 123(0x7B,0x1CB0), staticbroadcast, CISCO, status defined, activeSerial0 (up): ip 172.12.123.2 dlci 122(0x7B,0x1CB0), staticbroadcast, ietf, status defined, activeJust remember that Cisco is the default, and all PVCs will use Cisco unless you specify IETF in the frame map statement itself. You could also change the entire interface to use IETF for all mappings with the frame-relay encapsulation IETF command. For Cisco exams, as well as work on production networks, it's always a good idea to know more than one way to do something!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage

#ccna #ccnp #cisco #certification #frame #relay #ietf #pvc #router #serial #interface #exam #pass
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Caller ID Screening A unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Caller ID Screening And Callback***

As a CCNA and / or CCNP candidate, you've got to be able to spot situations where Cisco router features can save your client money and time. For example, if a spoke router is calling a hub router and the toll charges at the spoke site are higher than that of the hub router, having the hub router hang up initially and then call the spoke router back can save the client money (and make you look good!)A popular method of doing this is using PPP callback, but as we all know, it's a good idea to know more than one way to do things in Cisco World! A lesser-known but still effective method of callback is Caller ID Screening & Callback. Before we look at the callback feature, though, we need to know what Caller ID Screening is in the first place!This feature is often referred to simply as "Caller ID", which can be a little misleading if you've never seen this service in operation before. To most of us, Caller ID is a phone service that displays the source phone number of an incoming call. Caller ID Screening has a different meaning, though. Caller ID Screening on a Cisco router is really another kind of password - it defines the phone numbers that are allowed to call the router.The list of acceptable source phone numbers is created with the isdn caller command. Luckily for us, this command allows the use of x to specify a wildcard number. The command isdn caller 555xxxx results in calls being accepted from any 7-digit phone number beginning with 555, and rejected in all other cases. We'll configure R2 to do just that and then send a ping from R1 to R2. To see the results of the Caller ID Screening, debug dialer will be run on R1 before sending the ping. I?ve edited this output, since the output you see here will be repeated fire times ? once for each ping packet.R2(config-if)#isdn caller 555xxxxR1#debug dialerDial on demand events debugging is onR1#ping 172.12.12.2Type escape sequence to abort.Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.12.12.2, timeout is 2 seconds:03:30:25: BR0 DDR: Dialing cause ip (s=172.12.12.1, d=172.12.12.2)03:30:25: BR0 DDR: Attempting to dial 8358662.Success rate is 0 percent (0 / 5)R1 doesn't give us any hints as to what the problem is, but we can see that the pings definitely aren't going through. On R2, show dialer displays the number of screened calls.R2#show dialerBRI0 - dialer type = ISDNDial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status8358661 1 0 00:03:16 successful7 incoming call(s) have been screened.0 incoming call(s) rejected for callback.The callback option mentioned in the last line shown above enables the router to reject a phone call, and then call that router back seconds later.R2 will now be configured to initially hang up on R1, and then call R1 back.R2(config-if)#isdn caller 8358661 callbackR1 will now ping R2. The pings aren't returned, but seconds later R2 calls R1 back.R1#ping 172.12.12.2Success rate is 0 percent (0 / 5)R1#03:48:12: BRI0: wait for isdn carrier timeout, call id=0x8023R1#03:48:18: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to upR1#03:48:18: BR0:1 DDR: dialer protocol upR1#03:48:19: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to upR1#03:48:24: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 8358662 R2show dialer on R2 shows the reason for the call to R1 is a callback return call.R2#show dialerBRI0 - dialer type = ISDNDial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status8358661 3 0 00:00:48 successful7 incoming call(s) have been screened.10 incoming call(s) rejected for callback.BRI0:1 - dialer type = ISDNIdle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs)Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs)Dialer state is data link layer upDial reason: Callback return callTime until disconnect 71 secsConnected to 8358661 (R1)The drawback to Caller ID Callback is that not all telco switches support it, so if you have the choice between this and PPP Callback, you're probably better off with PPP Callback. However, it's always a good idea to know more than one way to get things done with Cisco!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bcran #pass #free #caller #id #callback #ppp #isdn #cisco #certification #exam #ccie #ccna
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Lab: Frame Relay Subint unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Lab: Frame Relay Subinterfaces And Split Horizon***

Earning your Cisco CCNA and CCNP is a tough proposition, and part of that is the fact that you quickly learn that there?s usually more than one way to do things with Cisco routers ? and while that?s generally a good thing, you better know the ins and outs of all options when it comes to test day and working on production networks. Working with Frame Relay subinterfaces and split horizon is just one such situation.One reason for the use of subinterfaces is to circumvent the rule of split horizon. You recall from your CCNA studies that split horizon dictates that a route cannot be advertised out the same interface upon which it was learned in the first place. In the following example, R1 is the hub and R2 and R3 are the spokes. All three routers are using their physical interfaces for frame relay connectivity, and they are also running RIPv2 172.12.123.0 / 24. Each router is also advertising a loopback interface, using the router number for each octet.R1(config)#int s0R1(config-if)#ip address 172.12.123.1 255.255.255.0R1(config-if)#no frame inverseR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 122 broadcastR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.3 123 broadcastR1(config-if)#no shutR2(config)#int s0R2(config-if)#encap frameR2(config-if)#no frame inverR2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.1 221 broadcastR2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.3 221 broadcastR2(config-if)#ip address 172.12.123.2 255.255.255.0R3(config)#int s0R3(config-if)#encap frameR3(config-if)#no frame inverR3(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.1 321 broadcastR3(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 321 broadcastR3(config-if)#ip address 172.12.123.3 255.255.255.0R1#show ip route rip2.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 2.2.2.2 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.2, 00:00:20, Serial03.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 3.3.3.3 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:22, Serial0R2#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:06, Serial0R3#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:04, Serial0The hub router R1 has a route to both loopbacks, but neither spoke has a route to the other spoke's loopback. That's because split horizon prevents R1 from advertising a network via Serial0 if the route was learned on Serial0 to begin with.We've got two options here, one of which is to disable spilt horizon on the interface. While doing so will have the desired effect in our little network, disabling split horizon is not a good idea and should be avoided whenever possible. We?re not going to do it in this lab, but here is the syntax to do so:R1(config)#interface serial0R1(config-if)#no ip split-horizonA better solution is to configure subinterfaces on R1. The IP addressing will have to be revisited, but that's no problem here. R1 and R2 will use 172.12.123.0 / 24 to communicate, while R1 and R3 will use 172.12.13.0 / 24. R3's serial0 interface will need to be renumbered, so let's look at all three router configurations:R1(config)#interface serial0R1(config-if)#encap frameR1(config-if)#no frame inverse-arpR1(config-if)#no ip addressR1(config-if)#interface serial0.12 multipointR1(config-subif)#ip address 172.12.123.1 255.255.255.0R1(config-subif)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 122 broadcastR1(config-subif)#interface serial0.31 point-to-pointR1(config-subif)#ip address 172.12.13.1 255.255.255.0R1(config-subif)#frame interface-dlci 123R2(config)#int s0R2(config-if)#ip address 172.12.123.2 255.255.255.0R2(config-if)#encap frameR2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.13.3 221 broadcastR2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.1 221 broadcastR3(config)#int s0R3(config-if)#ip address 172.12.13.3 255.255.255.0R3(config-if)#encap frameR3(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.13.1 321 broadcastR3(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 321 broadcastA frame map statement always names the REMOTE IP address and the LOCAL DLCI. Don't forget the broadcast option!Show frame map shows us that all the static mappings on R1 are up and running. Note the "static" output, which indicates these mappings are a result of using the frame map command. Pings are not shown, but all three routers can ping each other at this point.R1#show frame mapSerial0 (up): ip 172.12.123.2 dlci 122(0x7A,0x1CA0), static,broadcast, CISCO, status defined, activeSerial0 (up): ip 172.12.13.3 dlci 123(0x7B,0x1CB0), static,broadcast, CISCO, status defined, activeAfter the 172.12.13.0 / 24 network is added to R1 and R3?s RIP configuration, R2 and R3 now have each other's loopback network in their RIP routing tables.R2#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:20, Serial03.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 3.3.3.3 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:22, Serial0R3#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 172.12.13.1, 00:00:20, Serial02.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 2.2.2.2 [120 / 1] via 172.12.13.1, 00:00:22, Serial0While turning split horizon off is one way to achieve total IP connectivity, doing so can have other unintended results. The use of subinterfaces is a more effective way of allowing the spokes to see the hub's loopback network.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #exam #certification #frame #relay #subinterface #split #horizon #rip #network #loopback
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco / Microsoft Computer Certification: Be Ready For Your unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco / Microsoft Computer Certification: Be Ready For Your Opportunity***

I was reading The Big Moo: Stop Trying To Be Perfect and Start Being Remarkable this morning, and I?d recommend a copy of this to anyone who wants to improve their career and their future. And that?s all of us, right?There was one particular line that really stood out to me: Betting on change is always the safest bet available. That describes life perfectly, but it also describes a career in Information Technology perfectly as well. There is no field in the world that has the constant and never-ending changes that IT does. And every single one of us can look at this as a massive opportunity for personal and professional growth.Is that how you?re looking at it? I remember when I passed my first certification exam, the Novell CAN, back in 1997. Man, I thought I knew it all then. J But I quickly learned that you?ve got to keep learning in IT. I also learned that if you?re willing to put in the work and make the sacrifices, there?s no other field with the limitless potential for growth and excellence.Like everyone else, my career has had its ups and downs, but I always kept learning and growing. Today, I?ve got my dream job, working with students and customers just like you ? to help you create your own future.The next 18 months are filled with endless possibilities, particularly with the rapid growth of VoIP and Microsoft Vista on the horizon. There will be those who rationalize their inertia, saying ?I?ll never have to support those, so I don?t need to learn them."There will also be those who see VoIP and Vista as enormous opportunities to learn and advance in their careers and their lives. These people will get started today, learning the fundamentals of Cisco and advancing their networking knowledge in order to be ready for opportunities as they come along.You can?t start studying and learning when the opportunity arrives ? you?ve got to be ready when opportunity knocks. If you?ve been putting off studying for a Cisco or other computer certification ? and I know the summer is a really good time for putting off studying ? get back on track today.Because you never know what opportunities are going to come along ? but you do know that when they do, you?ve got to be ready to take advantage. After all, opportunity really does knock only once!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #ccnp #microsoft #computer #certification #mcse #vista #nt #pass #exam #novell #bryant
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***CCNP Certification / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Server Load Balan unimarter UniMarter
***CCNP Certification / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Server Load Balancing (SLB)***

When you're working on your BCMSN exam on your way to CCNP certification, you'll read at length about how Cisco routers and multilayer switches can work to provide router redundancy - but there's another helpful service, Server Load Balancing, that does the same for servers. While HSRP, VRRP, and CLBP all represent multiple physical routers to hosts as a single virtual router, SLB represents multiple physical servers to hosts as a single virtual server.In the following example, three physical servers have been placed into the SRB group ServFarm. They're represented to the hosts as the virtual server 210.1.1.14.The hosts will seek to communicate with the server at 210.1.1.14, not knowing that they're actually communicating with the routers in ServFarm. This allows quick cutover if one of the physical servers goes down, and also serves to hide the actual IP addresses of the servers in ServFarm.The basic operations of SLB involves creating the server farm, followed by creating the virtual server. We'll first add 210.1.1.11 to the server farm:MLS(config)# ip slb serverfarm ServFarmMLS(config-slb-sfarm)# real 210.1.1.11MLS(config-slb-real)# inserviceThe first command creates the server farm, with the real command specifying the IP address of the real server. The inservice command is required by SLB to consider the server as ready to handle the server farm's workload. The real and inservice commands should be repeated for each server in the server farm.To create the virtual server:MLS(config)# ip slb vserver VIRTUAL_SERVERMLS(config-slb-vserver)# serverfarm ServFarmMLS(config-slb-vserver)# virtual 210.1.1.14MLS(config-slb-vserver)# inserviceFrom the top down, the vserver was named VIRTUAL_SERVER, which represents the server farm ServFarm. The virtual server is assigned the IP address 210.1.1.14, and connections are allowed once the inservice command is applied.You may also want to control which of your network hosts can connect to the virtual server. If hosts or subnets are named with the client command, those will be the only clients that can connect to the virtual server. Note that this command uses wildcard masks. The following configuration would allow only the hosts on the subnet 210.1.1.0 / 24 to connect to the virtual server.MLS(config-slb-vserver)# client 210.1.1.0 0.0.0.255SLB is the server end's answer to HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP - but you still need to know it to become a CCNP! Knowing redundancy strategies and protocols is vital in today's networks, so make sure you're comfortable with SLB before taking on the exam.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNP certification with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #study #guide #server #load #balancing #slb #vrrp #hsrp #glbp #redundancy
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Configuring PortFast And unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Configuring PortFast And BPDU Guard***

In your CCNA studies, you learned about PortFast and the trouble it can cause if configured on the wrong port! Suitable only for switch ports connected directly to a single host, PortFast allows a port running STP to go directly from blocking to forwarding mode.A Cisco router will give you a warning when you configure PortFast:SW1(config)#int fast 0 / 5SW1(config-if)#spanning-tree portfast%Warning: portfast should only be enabled on ports connected to a
single host. Connecting hubs, concentrators, switches, bridges, etc...
to this interface when portfast is enabled, can cause temporary
bridging loops. Use with CAUTION%Portfast has been configured on FastEthernet0 / 5 but will onlyhave effect when the interface is in a non-trunking mode.SW1(config-if)#Not only will the switch warn you about the proper usage of PortFast, but you must put the port into access mode before PortFast will take effect.Now, you'd think that would be enough of a warning, right? But there is a chance - just a chance - that someone is going to manage to connect a switch to a port running Portfast. That could lead to two major problems, the first being the formation of a switching loop. Remember, the reason we have listening and learning modes is to help prevent switching loops. The next problem is that there could be a new root bridge elected - and it could be a switch that isn't even in your network!BPDU Guard protects against this disastrous possibility. If any BPDU comes in on a port that's running BPDU Guard, the port will be shut down and placed into error disabled state, shown on the switch as err-disabled. A port placed in err-disabled state must be reopened manually.BPDU Guard is off on all ports by default, and is enabled as shown here:SW1(config)#int fast 0 / 5SW1(config-if)#spanning-tree bpduguard enableIt's a good idea to enable BPDU Guard on any port you're running PortFast on. There's no cost in overhead, and it does prevent the possibility of a switch sending BPDUs into a port configured with PortFast - not to mention the possibility of a switch not under your control becoming a root switch to your network!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #bpdu #guard #portfast #port #fast #switch #err -disabled #exam #pass
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Filtering BGP Updates With unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Filtering BGP Updates With Prefix Lists***

A major part of your BSCI and CCNP exam success is mastering BGP, and that includes filtering BGP routing updates. In this tutorial, we'll take a look at how to filter BGP updates with prefix lists.R4 is advertising three networks via BGP. The downstream router R3 sees these routes and places them into its BGP table as shown below. R3 has two downstream BGP peers, R1 and R2, and is advertising itself as the next-hop IP address for all BGP routes sent to those two routers.R4(config)#router bgp 4R4(config-router)#network 21.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0R4(config-router)#network 22.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0R4(config-router)#network 23.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0R3#show ip bgpBGP table version is 4, local router ID is 3.3.3.3Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*> 21.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 I*> 22.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 I*> 23.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 IR3(config)#router bgp 123R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 next-hop-selfR3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.2 next-hop-selfIn turn, both R1 and R2 have these three routes in their respective BGP tables.R2#show ip bgpBGP table version is 4, local router ID is 2.2.2.2Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i22.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IR1#show ip bgpBGP table version is 4, local router ID is 19.1.1.1Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i22.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IIf we wanted R3 to receive all three of these routes from R4 but not advertise all of them to R2 and R1, we've got a couple of options on how to block these routes. Cisco's recommendation is the use of prefix-lists, and once you get used to the syntax (which you should do before taking and passing the BSCI), you'll see they are actually easier to use than access-lists.In this case, we're going to configure R3 to send only the route to 21.0.0.0 to R1 and 23.0.0.0 to R2. However, we do want these two routers to get any future routes that R4 advertises into BGP.Since R1 and R2 will learn about these routes from an iBGP neighbor, they will not advertise the routes to each other.On R3, we'll write a prefix-list that denies 22.0.0.0 / 8 and 23.0.0.0 / 8, but permits all other routes. After applying the prefix list as shown, R1 sees only the 21.0.0.0 / 8 route.R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 deny 23.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32R3(config)#router bgp 123R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 prefix-list FILTER_R1 outR3#clear ip bgp * softR1#show ip bgpBGP table version is 6, local router ID is 19.1.1.1Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IThe paths to 22.0.0.0 / 8 and 23.0.0.0 / 8 have been successfully filtered.We'll do the same for R2, except the route not being expressly blocked is 23.0.0.0 / 8. The line "ip prefix-list permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32" is the prefix list equivalent of a "permit any" statement in an ACL.R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 deny 21.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32R3(config)#router bgp 123R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.2 prefix-list FILTER_R2 outR3#clear ip bgp * softR2#show ip bgpBGP table version is 6, local router ID is 2.2.2.2Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IThe paths to 21.0.0.0 / 8 and 22.0.0.0 / 8 have been successfully filtered.To see the prefix lists configured on a route as well as the order of the statements in each list, run show ip prefix-list.R3#show ip prefix-listip prefix-list FILTER_R1: 3 entriesseq 5 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8seq 10 deny 23.0.0.0 / 8seq 15 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32ip prefix-list FILTER_R2: 3 entriesseq 5 deny 21.0.0.0 / 8seq 10 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8seq 15 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32Get some hands-on practice with prefix lists and you'll quickly master them. Prefix lists are an important part of working with BGP in the exam room and production networks, so it's vital that you are comfortable working with them.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bsci #exam #free #tutorial #bgp #filter #prefix #list #update #routing #pass #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: BPDU Skew Detection And C unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: BPDU Skew Detection And Cisco Switches***

You may look at that feature's name and think, "What is a BPDU Skew, and why do I want to detect it?" What we're actually attempting to detect are BPDUs that aren't being relayed as quickly as they should be.After the root bridge election, the root bridge transmits BPDUs, and the non-root switches relay that BPDU down the STP tree. This should happen quickly all around, since the root bridge will be sending a BPDU every two seconds by default ("hello time"), and the switches should relay the BDPUs fast enough so every switch is seeing a BPDU every two seconds.That's in a perfect world, though, and there are plenty of imperfect networks out there! You may have a busy switch that can't spare the CPU to relay the BDPU quickly, or a BPDU may just simply be lost in transmission. That two-second hello time value doesn't give the switches much leeway, but we don't want the STP topology recalculated unnecessarily either.BDPU Skew Detection is strictly a notification feature. Skew Detection will not take action to prevent STP recalculation when BDPUs are not being relayed quickly enough by the switches, but it will send a syslog message informing the network administrator of the problem. The amount of time between when the BDPU should have arrived and when it did arrive is referred to as "skew time" or "BPDU latency".A busy CPU could quickly find itself overwhelmed if it had to send a syslog message for every BPDU delivery that's skewed. The syslog messages will be limited to one every 60 seconds, unless the "skew time" is at a critical level. In that case, the syslog message will be sent immediately with no one-per-minute limit.And what is "critical", according to BDPU Skew Detection? Any value greater than 1 / 2 of the MaxAge value, making the critical skew time level 10 seconds or greater.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bcmsn #bpdu #skew #detection #exam #pass #certification #switch #cisco #stp #recalculation
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: ISIS Router Types*** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: ISIS Router Types***

To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP, you've got to know ISIS inside and out. There are many similarities between ISIS and OSPF, but one major difference is that ISIS has three different types of routers - Level 1 (L1), Level 2 (L2), and L1 / L2.L1 routers are contained in a single area, and are connected to other areas by an L1 / L2 router. The L1 uses the L1 / L2 router as a default gateway to reach destinations contained in other areas, much like an OSPF stub router uses the ABR as a default gateway.L1 routers have no specific routing table entries regarding any destination outside their own area; they will use an L1 / L2 router as a default gateway to reach any external networks. ISIS L1 routers in the same area must synchronize their databases with each other.Just as we have L1 routers, we also have L2 routers. Anytime we're routing between areas (inter-area routing), an L2 or L1 / L2 router must be involved. All L2 routers will have synchronized databases as well.Both L1 and L2 routers send out their own hellos. As with OSPF, hello packets allow ISIS routers to form adjacencies. The key difference here is that L1 routers send out L1 hellos, and L2 routers send out L2 hellos. If you have an L1 router and an L2 router on the same link, they will not form an adjacency.An ISIS router can act as an L1 and an L2 router at the same time; these routers are L1 / L2 routers. An L1 / L2 router can have neighbors in separate ISIS areas. The L1 / L2 router will have two separate databases, though - one for L1 routes and another for L2 routes. L1 / L2 is the default setting for Cisco routers running ISIS. The L1 / L2 router is the router that makes it possible for an L1 router to send data to another area.In the next part of my ISIS tutorial, we'll take a more detailed look at those ISIS hellos!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #bsci #isis #router #type #L1 #L2 #L1 / L2 #adjacency #hello #pass #exam #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: IGRP And Equal Cost Load Balancing* unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: IGRP And Equal Cost Load Balancing***

To pass the CCNA exam, you've got to know the role of the bandwidth command with IGRP and EIGRP and when to use it. In this tutorial, we'll configure IGRP over a frame relay hub-and-spoke network using the following networks:R1 (the hub), R2, and R3 are running IGRP over the 172.12.123.0 / 24 network. This is a T1 line.R1 and R3 are also connected on a different subnet, 172.12.13.0 / 24. The bandwidth of this connection is 512 KBPS.R2 and R3 are also connected by an Ethernet segment, 172.23.0.0 / 16.We'll configure IGRP on R1, R2, and R3 with the router igrp 1 command. IGRP will run on all interfaces in the 172.12.0.0 and 172.23.0.0 network.R1#conf tR1(config)#router igrp 1R1(config-router)#network 172.12.0.0The ?1? in the router igrp command refers to the Autonomous System (AS). IGRP is a classful routing protocol, so wildcard masks are not used in the network statements.R2#conf tR2(config-if)#router igrp 1R2(config-router)#network 172.12.0.0R2(config-router)#network 172.23.0.0R3#conf tR3(config-if)#router igrp 1R3(config-router)#network 172.12.0.0R3(config-router)#network 172.23.0.0Run show ip route on R1. R1 will see three equal-cost paths to the Ethernet network. IGRP supports load-sharing over up to four equal-cost paths by default, so all three paths appear in the routing table. R1 will also see a route to the loopback address on R2 and two routes to the loopback address on R3. (You can also run show ip route igrp in order to see only the IGRP routes.)R1#show ip route igrpI 172.23.0.0 / 16 [100 / 8576] via 172.12.123.2, 00:00:02, Serial0[100 / 8576] via 172.12.13.3, 00:00:02, Serial1[100 / 8576] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:01, Serial0Remember that the numbers in the brackets following the network number in the routes are the Administrative Distance and the IGRP metric, in that order.Note that classful masks are in use. IGRP does not support variable-length subnet masks (VLSM).There are two serial connections between R1 and R3. IGRP is assuming that both lines are T1 lines, running at 1544 KBPS. The 172.12.13.0 network is participating in equal-cost load sharing because of IGRP?s bandwidth assumption - that all serial interfaces are connected to T1 lines.To give IGRP a more accurate picture of the network?s bandwidth, configure bandwidth 512 on R1 and R3?s Serial1 interface (the interfaces on the 172.12.13.0 network).R1#conf tR1(config)#interface serial1R1(config-if)#bandwidth 512R3#conf tR3(config)#interface serial 1R3(config-if)#bandwidth 512IGRP?s assumption that all serial lines run at 1544 KBPS is overridden by the bandwidth 512 command. IGRP now believes this line runs at 512 KBPS.To see the effect of this command, clear your routing table on R1.R1#clear ip route *R1#show ip route igrpI 172.23.0.0 / 16 [100 / 8576] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:24, Serial0 / 0[100 / 8576] via 172.12.123.2, 00:00:17, Serial0 / 0The routing table is cleared with clear ip route *. To see only the routes received in IGRP updates instead of the entire table, run show ip route igrp.One of the paths to 172.23.0.0 is now gone - the route that went through the 172.12.13.0 network. Now that IGRP sees that link as slower than the others, equal-cost load balancing will not occur over the 172.12.13.0 network.It?s important to understand that the bandwidth command does not actually change the bandwidth of the connection; it changes IGRP?s assumption of what the bandwidth is.In the next part of this IGRP load-balancing tutorial, we'll take a look at how to configure unequal-cost load balancing.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #certification #exam #pass #igrp #eigrp #load #sharing #equal #unequal #cost #bandwidth
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Uplinkfast* unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Uplinkfast***

You remember from your CCNA studies that when a port goes through the transition from blocking to forwarding, you're looking at a 50-second delay before that port can actually begin forwarding frames. Configuring a port with PortFast is one way to get around that, but again, you can only use it when a single host device is found off the port. What if the device connected to a port is another switch?A switch can be connected to two other switches, giving that local switch a redundant path to the root bridge, and that's great - we always want a backup plan! However, STP will only allow one path to be available, but if the available path to the root switch goes down, there will be a 50-second delay due to the STP timers MaxAge and ForwardDelay before the currently blocked path will be available.The delay is there to prevent switching loops, and we can't use PortFast to shorten the delay since these are switches, not host devices. What we can use is Uplinkfast.The ports that SW3 could potentially use to reach the root switch are collectively referred to as an uplink group. The uplink group includes the ports in forwarding and blocking mode. If the forwarding port in the uplink group sees that the link has gone down, another port in the uplink group will be transitioned from blocking to forwarding immediately. Uplinkfast is pretty much PortFast for wiring closets. (Cisco recommends that Uplinkfast not be used on switches in the distribution and core layers.)Some additional details regarding Uplinkfast:The actual transition from blocking to forwarding mode takes about three seconds.Uplinkfast cannot be configured on a root switch.Uplinkfast is configured globally. You can't run Uplinkfast on some ports or on a per-VLAN basis - it's all or nothing.The original root port will become the root port again when it detects that its link to the root switch has come back up. This does not take place immediately. The switch uses the following formula to determine how long to wait before transitioning back to the forwarding state:( 2 x FwdDelay) + 5 secondsUplinkfast will take immediate action to ensure that the switch upon which it is configured cannot become the root switch. First, the switch priority will be set to 49,152, which means that if all other switches are still at their default priority, they'd all have to go down before this switch can possibly become the root switch. Additionally, the STP Port Cost will be increased by 3000, making it highly unlikely that this switch will be used to reach the root switch by any downstream switches.And you just know there's got to be at least one option with this command, right? Let's run IOS Help and see.SW2(config)#spanning-tree uplinkfast ?max-update-rate Rate at which station address updates are sentWhen there is a direct link failure, dummy multicast frames are sent to the MAC destination 0100.0ccd.cdcd. The max-update-rate value determines how many of these frames will be sent in a 100-millisecond time period.Mastering the details of UplinkFast, BackboneFast, BPDU Guard, and Loop Guard are vital to your success on the CCNP exams, and one or more of these features are in use on almost every network in the world. Learn these features for success in both the exam room and the real world!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #exam #pass #bcmsn #uplinkfast #switch #root #bridge #port #failure #ccie
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: ISIS Hellos A unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: ISIS Hellos And Adjacencies***

In my last ISIS tutorial, I mentioned that while ISIS and OSPF are both link state protocols, their actual operation differs greatly. To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP, you'll need to know these differences! Today, we'll take a look at ISIS Hello types and the adjacency types that form through the use of these Hellos.Hello packets have been mentioned several times with ISIS, and with good reason. Hello packets are the heartbeat of OSPF and ISIS when heartbeats are no longer heard from a neighbor, that adjacency will be dropped. A major difference between OSPF and ISIS is that OSPF has one type of Hello packet, where ISIS actually has three!An ES Hello (ESH) is send by all End Systems, and all IS devices listen for this Hello. This is how a router (IS) discovers a host (ES).An IS Hello (ISH) announces the presence of an IS. An IS Hello is sent by all IS devices, and End Systems listen for these hellos.An IS-to-IS Hello (IIH) is used by an IS to discover other ISes and to form adjacencies with them.An interesting side note: A router will send an IIH to another router on the link to form or maintain an adjacency, but it will still send an ISH as well in case there are end systems located on that segment.ISIS and OSPF both create and maintain adjacencies with the Hello packet. Let's take a look at the rules regarding ISIS adjacencies as well as the adjacency types.L1 and L2 Hellos are different messages, so an L1 router must exchange Hellos with another L1 router to form an adjacency, just as L2 routers form adjacencies with L2 routers. L1 routers can only form an adjacency with an L2 router if one of the two routers involved is actually an L1 / L2 router.L1 routers must be in the same area in order to form an adjacency. The Hello timers, as well as the MTU, must match between the interfaces used to form the adjacency.That's a lot of L1, L2, and L1 / L2, isn't it? Let's review the adjacencies each router type can form:L1: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area and any L1 / L2 in the same area.L2: Can form adjacency with any L2 in any area, and with an L1 / L2 in any area.L1 / L2: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area, L1 / L2 in any area, and L2 in any area.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #bsci #exam #certification #isis #router #type #hello #adjacency #L1 #L2 #L1 / L2 #ccna
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: The OSPF RID*** O unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: The OSPF RID***

OSPF is a major topic on your CCNA exam, as well it should be. OSPF is a widely-used WAN protocol, and you need to learn the fundamentals before moving on to more complicated configurations. One such detail is the OSPF Router ID, or RID.The RID is the dotted decimal value by which other OSPF routers will identify a given OSPF router. There are some interesting defaults for this value, and a command you should know to hardcode the RID. You had also better know what has to happen for this command to take effect, so let's take a more detailed look at the OSPF RID.In this example, R1 has an adjacency with R2 and R3 over the 172.12.123.0 / 24 frame network. R1 is the hub, with R2 and R3 as the spokes. No other interfaces are OSPF-enabled on any of the routers. Running show ip ospf neighbor on R1, we see some unusual values under "Neighbor ID", which is another name for the OSPF RID.R1#show ip ospf neighborNeighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface3.3.3.3 0 FULL / DROTHER 00:01:57 172.12.123.3 Serial02.2.2.2 0 FULL / DROTHER 00:01:57 172.12.123.2 Serial0Notice the Neighbor ID of each remote address is the loopback address. How can that be if they?re not OSPF-enabled?When determining the Router ID (RID) of an OSPF-enabled router, OSPF will always use the numerically highest IP address on the router?s loopback interfaces, regardless of whether that loopback is OSPF-enabled.What if there is no loopback? OSPF will then use the numerically highest IP address of the physical interfaces, regardless of whether that interface is OSPF-enabled.BOTTOM LINE: An interface does not have to be running OSPF to have its IP address used as the OSPF RID.The OSPF RID can be changed, but it requires a restart or to reinitialize the OSPF routing process. Use the router-id command to change the default RID of each router as shown, and clear the OSPF process to do so.R1#conf tEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL / Z.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#router-id 11.11.11.11Reload or use "clear ip ospf process" command, for this to take effectR1#clear ip ospf processReset ALL OSPF processes? [no]: yes1d05h: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 3.3.3.3 on Serial0 from 2WAY to
DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached1d05h: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 2.2.2.2 on Serial0 from 2WAY to
DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detachedAfter entering the router-id command, the router console informed you that you have to reload the router or reset the OSPF processes for this to take effect. You enter the clear ip ospf process command to do this. Notice that when you?re asked if you really want to do this, the prompt is ?no?? That?s because all the OSPF adjacencies on this router will be lost and will have to begin the process again. That?s OK on a practice rack, not good in a production network. Don?t use that one at work.The OSPF RID is not a complicated concept, but the fact that an interface doesn't have to be OSPF-enabled in order to have its IP address act as the RID takes some getting used to. And remember - when the router or switch asks you a question and the prompted answer is "no", take one step back and make sure you really want to do what you're about to do!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #exam #certification #ospf #rid #router #id #protocol #router #clear #ip #process #ccnp
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: The Core Layer Of Cisco's unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: The Core Layer Of Cisco's Three-Layer Model***

In this section, you're going to be reintroduced to a networking model you first saw in your CCNA studies. No, it's not the OSI model or the TCP / IP model - it's the Cisco Three-Layer Hierarchical Model. Let's face it, just about all you had to do for the CCNA was memorize the three layers and the order they were found in that model, but the stakes are raised here in your CCNP studies. You need to know what each layer does, and what each layer should not be doing. This is vital information for your real-world network career as well, so let's get started with a review of the Cisco three-layer model, and then we'll take a look at each layer's tasks. Most of the considerations at each layer are common sense, but we'll go over them anyway!Today we?ll take a look at the core layer of the Cisco model.The term core switches refers to any switches found here. Switches at the core layer allow switches at the distribution layer to communicate, and this is more than a full-time job. It's vital to keep any extra workload off the core switches, and allow them to do what they need to do - switch! The core layer is the backbone of your entire network, so we're interested in high-speed data transfer and very low latency - that's it!Core layer switches are usually the most powerful in your network, capable of higher throughput than any other switches in the network. Remember, everything we do on a Cisco router or switch has a cost in CPU or memory, so we're going to leave most frame manipulation and filtering to other layers. The exception is Cisco QoS, or Quality of Service. QoS is generally performed at the core layer. We'll go into much more detail regarding QoS in another tutorial, but for now, know that QoS is basically high-speed queuing where special consideration can be given to certain data in certain queues. (You?ll soon find that this is a very basic definition!)We always want redundancy, but you want a lot of redundancy in your core layer. This is the nerve center of your entire network, so fault tolerance needs to be as high as you can possibly get it. Root bridges should also be located in the core layer.The importance of keeping unnecessary workload off your core switches cannot be overstated. In the next part of this BCMSN tutorial, we?ll take a look at how the other layers of the Cisco three-part model do just that.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #exam #certification #bcmsn #core #layer #three #model #networking #switch #pass #ccie
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***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Multicasting And Reserved unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Multicasting And Reserved Addresses***

Ever since you picked up your first CCNA book, you've heard about multicasting, gotten a fair idea of what it is, and you've memorized a couple of reserved multicasting addresses. Now as you prepare to pass the BCMSN exam and become a CCNP, you've got to take that knowledge to the next level and gain a true understanding of multicasting. Those of you with an eye on the CCIE will truly have to become multicasting experts!Having said that, we're going to briefly review the basics of multicasting first, and then future tutorials will look at the different ways in which multicasting can be configured on Cisco routers and switches.What Is Multicasting?A unicast is data that is sent from one host to another, while a broadcast is data sent from a host that is destined for "all" host addresses. By "all", we can mean all hosts on a subnet, or truly all hosts on a network.There's a quite a bit of a middle ground there! A multicast is that middle ground, as a multicast is data that is sent to a logical group of hosts, called a multicast group. Hosts that are not part of the multicast group will not receive the data.Some other basic multicasting facts:There's no limit on how many multicast groups a single host can belong to.The sender is usually unaware of what host devices belong to the multicast group.Multicast traffic is unidirectional. If the members of the multicast group need to respond, that reply will generally be a unicast.The range of IP addresses reserved for multicasting is the Class D range, 224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255.That range contains a couple of other reserved address ranges.224.0.0.0 - 224.0.0.255 is reserved for network protocols only on a local network segment. Packets in this range will not be forwarded by routers, so these packets cannot leave the segment.Just as Class A, Class B, and Class C networks have private address ranges, so does Class D. The Class D private address range is 239.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255. Like the other private ranges, these addresses can't be routed, so they can be reused from one network to another.The remaining addresses fall between 224.0.1.0 and 238.255.255.255. That's the "normal" range of multicast addresses. These addresses can be routed, so they must be unique and should not be duplicated from one network to the next.In my next BCMSN / CCNP multicasting tutorial, we'll take a look at the different ways in which Cisco routers and switches interact to forward multicast traffic.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #bcmsn #multicasting #reserved #addresses #router #switch #igmp #pim #rp
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