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@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Review: Protocol Basic unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Review: Protocol Basics***

To earn your Cisco CCNA certification and pass the BSCI CCNP exam, you have to know your protocol basics like the back of your hand! To help you review these important concepts, here's a quick look at the basics of RIPv1, RIPv2, IGRP, and EIGRP.RIPv1: Broadcasts updates every 30 seconds to the address 255.255.255.255. RIPv1 is a classful protocol, and it does not recognize VLSM, nor does it carry subnet masking information in its routing updates. Update contains entire RIP routing table. Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. Allows equal-cost load-balancing by default. Max hop count is 15. Does not support clear-text or MD5 authentication of routing updates. Updates carry 25 routes maximum.RIPv2: Multicasts updates every 30 seconds to the address 224.0.0.9. RIPv2 is a classless protocol, allowing the use of subnet masks. Update contains entire RIP routing table. Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. Allows equal-cost load-balancing by default. Max hop count is 15. Supports clear-text and MD5 authentication of routing updates. Updates carry 25 routes maximum.IGRP: Broadcasts updates every 90 seconds to the address 255.255.255.255. IGRP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol, and is also a classful protocol and does not recognize subnet masking. Update contains entire routing table. Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. Equal-cost load-balancing on by default; unequal-cost load-sharing can be used with the variance command. Max hop count is 100.EIGRP: Multicasts full routing table only when an adjacency is first formed. Multicasts updates only when there is a change in the network topology, and then only advertises the change. Multicasts to 224.0.0.10 and allows the use of subnet masks. Uses DUAL routing algorithm. Unequal-cost load-sharing available with the variance command.By mastering the basics of these protocols, you're laying the foundation for success in the exam room and when working on production networks. Pay attention to the details and the payoff is "CCNA" and "CCNP" behind your name!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNA exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #exam #protocol #ccnp #bsci #protocol #rip #igrp #eigrp #multicast #address #free #equal #cost
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@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Same Command, Differe unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Same Command, Different Results***

As a CCNA or CCNP, one thing you've got to get used to is that change is constant. Cisco regularly issues new IOS versions, not to mention the many different kinds of hardware they produce! While it's always nice to have "the latest and the greatest" when it comes to routers, switches, firewalls, etc., we have to be prepared for the fact that not all our clients are going to have that latest and greatest!For instance, there are still quite a few Catalyst 5000 switches out there humming away, and if you're used to working on IOS-driven switches like the 2950, the same command can have dramatically different results.Let's say you're going to examine the spanning tree protocol (STP) setup of a new client. You're used to working with newer 2950 switches, and you've always run show span on those switches to display spanning-tree information. Then, you run show span on a Catalyst 5000 - and something like this shows:switch (enable) show spanDestination : Port 6 / 1Admin Source : Port 6 / 2Oper Source : Port 6 / 2Direction : transmit / receiveIncoming Packets: disabledLearning : enabledMulticast : enabledFilter : -Status : activeTotal local span sessions: 1What's going on here?The command show span on a 5000 will not show spanning tree stats - instead, what you're going to see are statistics relating to Switched Port ANalyzer (SPAN). Surprise!Consider an example where you're used to running show span on 5000 switches to see SPAN information. When you run that on a 2950, you know now what you're going to get - spanning tree information! On a 2950, you'll need to run show monitor session, followed by the SPAN session number.SW1#show monitor session 1Session 1---------Type : Local SessionSource Ports :Both : Fa0 / 1Destination Ports : Fa0 / 2Encapsulation : NativeIngress: DisabledAs a CCNA and CCNP, this is one of those things you just have to get used to. Commands are going to be different, sometimes radically so, between models. That's why you need to be adept with both IOS Help and Cisco's online documentation site. IOS Help is easy, but the online doc site take a little getting used to. Once you learn how to navigate that site, a world of Cisco knowledge is at your fingertips.Besides, when you sit for the CCIE lab exam, that will be the only friend you have! And a valuable friend it can be - you're just going to have to trust me on that one. :)Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, "How To Pass The CCNA" and "How To Pass The CCNP", visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #bsci #bcran #free #exam #tutorial #span #tree #protocol #router #switch #ios #5000
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Filtering BGP Updates With unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Filtering BGP Updates With Prefix Lists***

A major part of your BSCI and CCNP exam success is mastering BGP, and that includes filtering BGP routing updates. In this tutorial, we'll take a look at how to filter BGP updates with prefix lists.R4 is advertising three networks via BGP. The downstream router R3 sees these routes and places them into its BGP table as shown below. R3 has two downstream BGP peers, R1 and R2, and is advertising itself as the next-hop IP address for all BGP routes sent to those two routers.R4(config)#router bgp 4R4(config-router)#network 21.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0R4(config-router)#network 22.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0R4(config-router)#network 23.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0R3#show ip bgpBGP table version is 4, local router ID is 3.3.3.3Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*> 21.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 I*> 22.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 I*> 23.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 IR3(config)#router bgp 123R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 next-hop-selfR3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.2 next-hop-selfIn turn, both R1 and R2 have these three routes in their respective BGP tables.R2#show ip bgpBGP table version is 4, local router ID is 2.2.2.2Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i22.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IR1#show ip bgpBGP table version is 4, local router ID is 19.1.1.1Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i22.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IIf we wanted R3 to receive all three of these routes from R4 but not advertise all of them to R2 and R1, we've got a couple of options on how to block these routes. Cisco's recommendation is the use of prefix-lists, and once you get used to the syntax (which you should do before taking and passing the BSCI), you'll see they are actually easier to use than access-lists.In this case, we're going to configure R3 to send only the route to 21.0.0.0 to R1 and 23.0.0.0 to R2. However, we do want these two routers to get any future routes that R4 advertises into BGP.Since R1 and R2 will learn about these routes from an iBGP neighbor, they will not advertise the routes to each other.On R3, we'll write a prefix-list that denies 22.0.0.0 / 8 and 23.0.0.0 / 8, but permits all other routes. After applying the prefix list as shown, R1 sees only the 21.0.0.0 / 8 route.R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 deny 23.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32R3(config)#router bgp 123R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 prefix-list FILTER_R1 outR3#clear ip bgp * softR1#show ip bgpBGP table version is 6, local router ID is 19.1.1.1Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IThe paths to 22.0.0.0 / 8 and 23.0.0.0 / 8 have been successfully filtered.We'll do the same for R2, except the route not being expressly blocked is 23.0.0.0 / 8. The line "ip prefix-list permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32" is the prefix list equivalent of a "permit any" statement in an ACL.R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 deny 21.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32R3(config)#router bgp 123R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.2 prefix-list FILTER_R2 outR3#clear ip bgp * softR2#show ip bgpBGP table version is 6, local router ID is 2.2.2.2Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IThe paths to 21.0.0.0 / 8 and 22.0.0.0 / 8 have been successfully filtered.To see the prefix lists configured on a route as well as the order of the statements in each list, run show ip prefix-list.R3#show ip prefix-listip prefix-list FILTER_R1: 3 entriesseq 5 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8seq 10 deny 23.0.0.0 / 8seq 15 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32ip prefix-list FILTER_R2: 3 entriesseq 5 deny 21.0.0.0 / 8seq 10 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8seq 15 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32Get some hands-on practice with prefix lists and you'll quickly master them. Prefix lists are an important part of working with BGP in the exam room and production networks, so it's vital that you are comfortable working with them.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bsci #exam #free #tutorial #bgp #filter #prefix #list #update #routing #pass #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: ISIS Router Types*** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: ISIS Router Types***

To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP, you've got to know ISIS inside and out. There are many similarities between ISIS and OSPF, but one major difference is that ISIS has three different types of routers - Level 1 (L1), Level 2 (L2), and L1 / L2.L1 routers are contained in a single area, and are connected to other areas by an L1 / L2 router. The L1 uses the L1 / L2 router as a default gateway to reach destinations contained in other areas, much like an OSPF stub router uses the ABR as a default gateway.L1 routers have no specific routing table entries regarding any destination outside their own area; they will use an L1 / L2 router as a default gateway to reach any external networks. ISIS L1 routers in the same area must synchronize their databases with each other.Just as we have L1 routers, we also have L2 routers. Anytime we're routing between areas (inter-area routing), an L2 or L1 / L2 router must be involved. All L2 routers will have synchronized databases as well.Both L1 and L2 routers send out their own hellos. As with OSPF, hello packets allow ISIS routers to form adjacencies. The key difference here is that L1 routers send out L1 hellos, and L2 routers send out L2 hellos. If you have an L1 router and an L2 router on the same link, they will not form an adjacency.An ISIS router can act as an L1 and an L2 router at the same time; these routers are L1 / L2 routers. An L1 / L2 router can have neighbors in separate ISIS areas. The L1 / L2 router will have two separate databases, though - one for L1 routes and another for L2 routes. L1 / L2 is the default setting for Cisco routers running ISIS. The L1 / L2 router is the router that makes it possible for an L1 router to send data to another area.In the next part of my ISIS tutorial, we'll take a more detailed look at those ISIS hellos!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #bsci #isis #router #type #L1 #L2 #L1 / L2 #adjacency #hello #pass #exam #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Using OSPF's
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Using OSPF's "Summary-Address" Command***

BSCI exam success, not to mention earning your CCNP, can come down to your OSPF route summarization skills. There are a few different commands and situations you need to be ready for, and one of these situations is the proper use of the "summary-address" command.The summary-address command should be used on an ASBR in order to summarize routes that are being injected into the OSPF domain via redistribution. In the following example, four routes are being redistributed into OSPF on R1, making R1 an ASBR.interface Loopback16ip address 16.16.16.16 255.0.0.0!interface Loopback17ip address 17.17.17.17 255.0.0.0!interface Loopback18ip address 18.18.18.18 255.0.0.0!interface Loopback19ip address 19.19.19.19 255.0.0.0R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#redistribute connected subnetsThese four routes are seen on downstream router R2 as External Type-2, the default for routes redistributed into OSPF.R2#show ip route ospfO E2 17.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial0O E2 16.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial0O E2 19.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial0O E2 18.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial0To summarize networks learned by redistribution, use the OSPF command summary-address. You can probably do this summarization in your head, but do so before continuing with the lab.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#summary-address 16.0.0.0 252.0.0.0Look at the change in R2's OSPF table.R2#show ip route ospfO E2 16.0.0.0 / 6 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:05, Serial0The external routes have been successfully summarized. Note that the summary route is still marked as an E2 route.There's an interesting route installed into R1's OSPF table as well.R1#show ip route ospfO 16.0.0.0 / 6 is a summary, 00:01:51, Null0When you configure summary routes in OSPF, a route to null0 will be installed into the OSPF routing table. This helps to prevent routing loops. Any packets destined for the routes that have been summarized will have a longer match in the routing table....C 17.0.0.0 / 8 is directly connected, Loopback17C 16.0.0.0 / 8 is directly connected, Loopback16C 19.0.0.0 / 8 is directly connected, Loopback19C 18.0.0.0 / 8 is directly connected, Loopback18O 16.0.0.0 / 6 is a summary, 00:03:10, Null0O 12.0.0.0 / 6 is a summary, 00:07:53, Null0.. and packets that do not match one of the summarized routes but do match the summary route will be dropped.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials! Pass the BSCI exam with Chris Bryant!

#ospf #summary #address #command #route #summarization #summarize #bsci #exam #pass #free #tutorial
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: ISIS Hellos A unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: ISIS Hellos And Adjacencies***

In my last ISIS tutorial, I mentioned that while ISIS and OSPF are both link state protocols, their actual operation differs greatly. To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP, you'll need to know these differences! Today, we'll take a look at ISIS Hello types and the adjacency types that form through the use of these Hellos.Hello packets have been mentioned several times with ISIS, and with good reason. Hello packets are the heartbeat of OSPF and ISIS when heartbeats are no longer heard from a neighbor, that adjacency will be dropped. A major difference between OSPF and ISIS is that OSPF has one type of Hello packet, where ISIS actually has three!An ES Hello (ESH) is send by all End Systems, and all IS devices listen for this Hello. This is how a router (IS) discovers a host (ES).An IS Hello (ISH) announces the presence of an IS. An IS Hello is sent by all IS devices, and End Systems listen for these hellos.An IS-to-IS Hello (IIH) is used by an IS to discover other ISes and to form adjacencies with them.An interesting side note: A router will send an IIH to another router on the link to form or maintain an adjacency, but it will still send an ISH as well in case there are end systems located on that segment.ISIS and OSPF both create and maintain adjacencies with the Hello packet. Let's take a look at the rules regarding ISIS adjacencies as well as the adjacency types.L1 and L2 Hellos are different messages, so an L1 router must exchange Hellos with another L1 router to form an adjacency, just as L2 routers form adjacencies with L2 routers. L1 routers can only form an adjacency with an L2 router if one of the two routers involved is actually an L1 / L2 router.L1 routers must be in the same area in order to form an adjacency. The Hello timers, as well as the MTU, must match between the interfaces used to form the adjacency.That's a lot of L1, L2, and L1 / L2, isn't it? Let's review the adjacencies each router type can form:L1: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area and any L1 / L2 in the same area.L2: Can form adjacency with any L2 in any area, and with an L1 / L2 in any area.L1 / L2: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area, L1 / L2 in any area, and L2 in any area.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #bsci #exam #certification #isis #router #type #hello #adjacency #L1 #L2 #L1 / L2 #ccna
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: The Passive Interface Comm unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: The Passive Interface Command And OSPF***

To pass the BSCI exam and become a CCNP, you have to be aware of the proper use of passive interfaces. You learned about passive interfaces in your CCNA studies, but here we?ll review the basic concept and clear up one misconception regarding passive interfaces and OSPF.Configuring an interface as passive will still allow the interface to receive routing updates, but the interface will no longer transmit them. While the command itself would make you think this command will be applied at the interface level, that is not the case. Below, we?ll configure ethernet0 as a RIP passive interface.R1(config)#router ripR1(config-router)#passive-interface ethernet0Ethernet0 will no longer send RIP routing updates, but will accept them.The passive interface concept is clear enough with RIP, IGRP, and EIGRP ? all protocols that send routing update packets. But OSPF doesn?t send routing update packets ? OSPF sends link state advertisements. It?s the inability of the passive interface command to stop LSAs that lead many to think that passive interfaces cannot be used with OSPF.Even though OSPF does not sent "routing updates" in the form that RIP, IGRP, and EIGRP do, you can still configure an OSPF-enabled interface as passive in order to prevent OSPF traffic from exiting or entering that interface. No OSPF adjacency can be formed if one of the interfaces involved is a passive interface, and if you configure an OSPF-enabled interface as passive where an adjacency already exists, the adjacency will drop almost immediately.Let's see that in action. R1 and R2 have an existing OSPF adjacency over their Ethernet interfaces. In an effort to reduce routing traffic, R1's e0 interface is configured as passive. The adjacency drops right away.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#passive-interface ethernet018:31:11: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0 from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detachedKnowing how to use the passive interface command is a vital part of being a CCNP, and of being a master networker. Good luck to you in both of these pursuits!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #exam #bsci #pass #free #tutorial #passive #interface #ospf #eigrp #igrp #rip #ccna
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: OSPF Route Redistribution unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: OSPF Route Redistribution Review***

OSPF route redistribution is an important topic on the BSCI exam, and it's a topic full of details and defaults that you need to know for the exam room and the job. To help you pass the BSCI exam, here's a quick review of some of the OSPF route redistribution basics.To see if a router is an ABR or ASBR, run show ip ospf. This also displays any routes being redistributed into OSPF on this router.R1#show ip ospfRouting Process "ospf 1" with ID 1.1.1.1Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routesSupports opaque LSAIt is an area border and autonomous system boundary routerRedistributing External Routes from,connected, includes subnets in redistributionrip, includes subnets in redistributionWhen redistributing RIP into OSPF, the ?subnets" option is needed to include subnets in redistribution. When redistributing OSPF into RIP, a seed metric must be specified. (OSPF gives redistributed routes a default metric of 20 ? this can be changed, but a seed metric does not have to be set.)R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#redistribute connected% Only classful networks will be redistributedR1(config-router)#redistribute connected subnetsR1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnetsR1(config-router)#router ripR1(config-router)#redistribute connected metric 1R1(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 1By default, routes redistributed into OSPF are marked as E2 routes. The metric for these routes reflects only the cost of the path from the ASBR to the destination network and does not include the cost of the path from the local router to the ASBR. By contrast, E1 routes include the cost of the entire path from the local router to the destination network.O E2 5.1.1.1 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet06.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E2 6.1.1.1 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet0172.12.0.0 / 16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masksO E2 172.12.21.0 / 30 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:32, Ethernet0O E2 7.1.1.1 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet015.0.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E2 15.1.1.0 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:32, Ethernet0To redistribute routes into OSPF and mark them as E1 upon redistribution, use the metric-type option with the redistribution command.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets metric-type ?1 Set OSPF External Type 1 metrics2 Set OSPF External Type 2 metricsR1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets metric-type 1Look at the same two routes in R4's routing table, which are now displayed as E1 routes:O E1 5.1.1.1 [110 / 94] via 172.34.34.3, 00:04:13, Ethernet06.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E1 6.1.1.1 [110 / 94] via 172.34.34.3, 00:04:14, Ethernet0BSCI exam success and earning your CCNP certification depends on knowing the details, and there are plenty of details involved in OSPF route redistribution! Keep studying, practice different scenarios in your CCNA / CCNP home lab or rack rental, and you'll master these details and pass the exam!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #exam #bsci #ospf #route #redistribution #subnet #e2 #e1 #external #route
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ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BCSI Exam Tutorial: Broadcasts And The IP Help unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BCSI Exam Tutorial: Broadcasts And The IP Helper-Address Command***

While routers accept and generate broadcasts, they do not forward them. This can be quite a problem when a broadcast needs to get to a device such as a DHCP or TFTP server that's on one side of a router with other subnets on the other side.If a PC attempts to locate a DNS server with a broadcast, the broadcast will be stopped by the router and will never get to the DNS server. By configuring the ip helper-address command on the router, UDP broadcasts such as this will be translated into a unicast by the router, making the communication possible. The command should be configured on the interface that will be receiving the broadcasts.R1(config)#int e0R1(config-if)#ip helper-address ?A.B.C.D IP destination addressR1(config-if)#ip helper-address 100.1.1.2Now, you may be wondering if this command covers all UDP services. Sorry, you're not getting off that easy! The command does forward eight common UDP service broadcasts, though.TIME, port 37TACACS, port 49DNS, port 53BOOTP / DHCP Server, port 67BOOTP / DHCP Client, port 68TFTP, port 69NetBIOS name service, port 137NetBIOS datagram service, port 138That's going to cover most scenarios where the ip helper-address command will be useful, but what about those situations where the broadcast you need forwarded is not on this list? You can use the ip forward-protocol command to add any UDP port number to the list.Additionally, to remove protocols from the default list, use the no ip forward-protocol command. In the following example, we'll add the Network Time Protocol port to the forwarding list while removing the NetBIOS ports. Remember, you can use IOS Help to get a list of commonly filtered ports!R1(config)#ip forward-protocol udp ? Port numberbiff Biff (mail notification, comsat, 512)bootpc Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) client (68)bootps Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) server (67)discard Discard (9)dnsix DNSIX security protocol auditing (195)domain Domain Name Service (DNS, 53)echo Echo (7)isakmp Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (500)mobile-ip Mobile IP registration (434)nameserver IEN116 name service (obsolete, 42)netbios-dgm NetBios datagram service (138)netbios-ns NetBios name service (137)netbios-ss NetBios session service (139)ntp Network Time Protocol (123)pim-auto-rp PIM Auto-RP (496)rip Routing Information Protocol (router, in.routed, 520)snmp Simple Network Management Protocol (161)snmptrap SNMP Traps (162)sunrpc Sun Remote Procedure Call (111)syslog System Logger (514)tacacs TAC Access Control System (49)talk Talk (517)tftp Trivial File Transfer Protocol (69)time Time (37)who Who service (rwho, 513)xdmcp X Display Manager Control Protocol (177)R1(config)#ip forward-protocol udp 123R1(config)#no ip forward-protocol udp 137R1(config)#no ip forward-protocol udp 138
As you can see, the ip helper-address command helps work around the fact that broadcasts aren't forwarded by routers by default, and if you just need to send one or two broadcast types, the other types can be turned off easily.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #bsci #exam #pass #free #tutorial #ip #helper #address #broacast #router #forward #ccie
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Comparing IR unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Comparing IRDP And HSRP***

To pass the BSCI exam, you need to know the difference between IRDP and HSRP. While they have the same basic function, the operation and configuration of each are totally different.The aim of both is to allow hosts to quickly discover a standby router when the primary router fails. IRDP is commonly used by Windows DHCP clients and several Unix variations, but you do see it in Cisco routers as well. IRDP is defined in RFC 1256.IRDP routers will multicast Hello messages that host devices hear. If a host hears from more than one IRDP router, it will choose one as its primary and will start using the other router if the primary it's chosen goes down.HSRP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol that is designed for quick cutover to a secondary router if the primary fails, but the host devices don't "see" either the primary or secondary router. The hosts use a virtual router as their default gateway. This virtual router has its own IP and MAC address! All the while, the router chosen as the primary is actually the one doing the routing. If the primary router goes down, the secondary router quickly takes over with no major interruption to network services.The HSRP routers communicate by multicasting updates to 224.0.0.2, and its through these hellos that the HSRP routers decide which router is primary and which is secondary. HSRP is defined in RFC 2281.The configuration of each of these will be covered in a future tutorial. In the meantime, I urge you to read the RFCs mentioned in this article, and visit www.cisco.com / univercd to read about the configurations and options available for both of these vital protocols.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #bsci #exam #irdp #hsrp #backup #router #switch #pass #free #tutorial
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: EIGRP Stuck-In-Act unimarter UniMarter
***CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: EIGRP Stuck-In-Active Routes***

Passing the BSCI exam and earning your CCNP is all about knowing the details, and when it comes to EIGRP SIA routes, there are plenty of details to know. A quick check in a search engine for "troubleshoot SIA" will bring up quite a few matches. Troubleshooting SIA routes is very challengin in that there's no one reason they occur.View the EIGRP topology table with the show ip eigrp topology command, and you'll see a code next to every successor and feasible successor. A popular misconception is that we want these routes to have an "A" next to them - so they're active. That's what we want, right? Active routes sound good, right?Well, they sound good, but they're not. If a route shows as Active in the EIGRP topology table, that means that DUAL is currently calculating that route, and it's currently unusable. When a route is Passive ("P), that means it's not being recalculated and it's a usable route.Generally, a route shown as Active is going to be there for a very short period of time by the time you repeat the command, hopefully that Active route has gone Passive. Sometimes that doesn't happen, though, and the route becomes SIA - Stuck In Active.A route becomes SIA when a query goes unanswered for so long that the neighbor relationship is reset. From experience, I can tell you that troubleshooting SIA routes is more of an art form than a science, but there are four main reasons a route becomes SIA:The link is unidirectional, so the query can't possibly be answered.The queried router's resources are unavailable, generally due to high CPU utilization.The queried router's memory is corrupt or otherwise unable to allow the router to answer the query.The link between the two routers is of low quality, allowing just enough packets through to keep the neighbor relationship intact, but not good enough to allow the replies through.To sum it up, routes generally become SIA when a neighbor either doesn't answer a query, or either the query or reply took a wrong turn somewhere. I told you it wasn't the easiest thing to troubleshoot!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #certification #bsci #exam #pass #free #eigrp #sia #stuck #in #active #router #configure #ccna
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: HSRP MAC Addresses unimarter UniMarter
***CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: HSRP MAC Addresses And Timers***

To earn your CCNP certification and pass the BCMSN exam, you've got to know what HSRP does and the many configurable options. While the operation of HSRP is quite simple (and covered in a previous tutorial), you also need to know how HSRP arrives at the MAC address for the virtual router - as well as how to configure a new MAC for this virtual router. This puts us in the unusual position of creating a physical address for a router that doesn't exist!The output of show standby for a two-router HSRP configuration is shown below.R2#show standbyEthernet0 - Group 5Local state is Standby, priority 100Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 secNext hello sent in 0.776Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configuredActive router is 172.12.23.3, priority 100 expires in 9.568Standby router is local1 state changes, last state change 00:00:22R3#show standbyEthernet0 - Group 5Local state is Active, priority 100Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 secNext hello sent in 2.592Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configuredActive router is localStandby router is 172.12.23.2 expires in 8.020Virtual mac address is 0000.0c07.ac052 state changes, last state change 00:02:08R3 is in Active state, while R2 is in Standby. The hosts are using the 172.12.123.10 address as their gateway, but R3 is actually handling the workload. R2 will take over if R3 becomes unavailable.An IP address was assigned to the virtual router during the HSRP configuration process, but not a MAC address. However, there is a MAC address under the show standby output on R3, the active router. How did the HSRP process arrive at a MAC of 00-00-0c-07-ac-05?Well, most of the work is already done before the configuration is even begun. The MAC address 00-00-0c-07-ac-xx is reserved for HSRP, and xx is the group number in hexadecimal. That's a good skill to have for the exam, so make sure you're comfortable with hex conversions. The group number is 5, which is expressed as 05 with a two-bit hex character. If the group number had been 17, we'd see 11 at the end of the MAC address - one unit of 16, one unit of 1.The output of the show standby command also tells us that the HSRP speakers are sending Hellos every 3 seconds, with a 10-second holdtime. These values can be changed with the standby command, but HSRP speakers in the same group should have the same timers. You can even tie down the hello time to the millisecond, but it's doubtful you'll ever need to do that.R3(config-if)#standby 5 timers ? Hello interval in secondsmsec Specify hello interval in millisecondsR3(config-if)#standby 5 timers 4 ? Hold time in secondsR3(config-if)#standby 5 timers 4 12Another important HSRP skill is knowing how to change the Active router assignment. I'll show you how to do that, and how to configure HSRP interface tracking, in the next part of my CCNP / BCMSN exam tutorial!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #bsci #hsrp #priority #mac #address #conversion #router #virtual #pass #free #tutorial
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Ten IP Routing Details You unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Ten IP Routing Details You Must Know!***

To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP, you've got to keep a lot of details in mind. It's easy to overlook the "simpler" protocols and services such as static routing and distance vector protocols. With this in mind, here's a quick review of some details you should know for success in the exam room and real-world networks!When packets need to be routed, the routing table is parsed for the longest prefix match if multiple paths exist with the same prefix length, the route with the lowest AD is preferred. If there are still multiple valid paths, equal-cost load-sharing goes into effect.The ip route command is used to create static routes the command ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 < next-hop-IP or local exit interface> creates a default static route.A static route with a next-hop IP address has an AD of one, while a static route with a local exit interface has an AD of zero.A floating static route is a static route with an AD higher than that of the dynamic routing protocols running on the router, ensuring that the static route can only be used if the routing protocol goes down.On-Demand Routing (ODR) is only appropriate in a hub-and-spoke network. The spokes effectively become stub routers. ODR uses Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) to send route information.To propagate a default route with IP routing, use the ip default-network command. To do so with IP routing disabled, use ip default-gateway. You can also redistribute a static route into most protocols, but not IGRP. IGRP does not understand a static route to 0.0.0.0.The ip helper-address command takes certain broadcasts and translates then into unicasts in order to allow the router to forward them. These default ports are:TIME, port 37TACACS, port 49DNS, port 53BOOTP / DHCP Server, port 67BOOTP / DHCP Client, port 68TFTP, port 69NetBIOS name service, port 137NetBIOS datagram services, port 138To name other ports, use the ip forward-protocol command. To remove any of these ports from the default list, use the no ip forward-protocol command.ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) hosts hear multicast Hellos from routers, allowing host-router discovery. HSRP routers create a virtual router that hosts think is a real router. Both protocols help networks cut over to a functional router quickly when their primary router goes down.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #bsci #exam #routing #pass #free #hsrp #ip #route #prefix #match #review #bryant #ccie #12933
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: An Introducti unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: An Introduction To BGP***

When you're studying for the BSCI exam on the way to earning your CCNP certification, it's safe to say that BGP is like nothing you?ve studied to this point. BGP is an external routing protocol used primarily by Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Unless you work for an ISP today or in the future, you may have little or no prior exposure to BGP. Understanding BGP is a great addition to your skill set ? and you have to know the basics well to pass the BSCI exam.Note that I said ?the basics?. BGP is a very complex protocol, and when you pursue your CCIE, you?ll see what I?m talking about. As with all things Cisco, though, when broken down into smaller pieces, BGP becomes quite understandable. You will need to know the basics of BGP as presented in this chapter to pass your BSCI exam ? so let?s get started.BGP defined:An Internet protocol that enables groups of routers (called autonomous systems) to share routing information so that efficient, loop-free routes can be established. BGP is commonly used within and between Internet Service Providers (ISPs).There are a couple of terms in there that apply to the protocols you?ve mastered so far in your studies. The term ?autonomous system? applies to IGRP and EIGRP as well as BGP; you?ll be indicating a BGP AS in your configurations just as you did with IGRP and EIGRP. And we?re always looking for efficient, loop-free routes, right? As it did with IGRP and EIGRP, "autonomous system" simply refers to a group of routers that is managed by a single administrative body. An autonomous system will use an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) such as OSPF or EIGRP to route packets inside the AS; outside the AS, an Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) such as BGP will be used.BGP shares some characteristics with some routing protocols you?ve already studied. BGP supports VLSM, summarization, and CIDR. Like EIGRP, BGP will send full updates when two routers initially become neighbors and will send only partial updates after that. BGP does create and maintain neighbor relationships before exchanging routes, and keepalives are sent to keep this relationship alive.BGP has some major differences from the IGPs we?ve studied to this point. You?ll hear BGP referred to as a path-vector protocol. As opposed to distance-vector protocols that exchange relatively simple information about available routes, BGP routers will exchange extensive information about networks to allow the routers to make more intelligent routing decisions. This additional BGP path information comes in the form of attributes, and these path attributes are contained in the updates sent by BGP routers. Attributes themselves are broken up into two classes, well-known and optional.BGP also keeps a routing table separate from the IP routing table.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, "How To Pass The CCNA" and "How To Pass The CCNP", just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #certification #ccnp #bsci #bgp #introduction #what #is #autonomous #system #bryant #12933
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: The BGP Neighbor P unimarter UniMarter
***CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: The BGP Neighbor Process***

Like TCP, BGP is connection-oriented. An underlying connection between two BGP speakers is established before any routing information is exchanged. This connection takes place on TCP port 179. As with EIGRP and OSPF, keepalive messages are sent out by the BGP speakers in order to keep this relationship alive.Once the connection is established, the BGP speakers exchange routes and synchronize their tables. After this initial exchange, a BGP speaker will only send further updates upon a change in the network topology.The IGP protocols that use Autonomous Systems, IGRP and EIGRP, require prospective neighbors to be in the same AS. This is not true with BGP. Routers can be in different Autonomous Systems and still exchange routes. The BGP neighbors do not have to be directly connected, and often are not, but do need to be able to reach the IP addresses they use in their neighbor statements.A BGP peer that is in the same AS is referred to as an Internal BGP (iBGP) Peer, where a BGP peer in another AS is an External BGP (eBGP) Peer.A sample iBGP configuration:Router bgp 100Neighbor 10.1.1.2 remote-as 100A sample eBGP configuration:Router bgp 100Neighbor 10.1.1.2 remote-as 200Cisco recommends that eBGP peers be directly connected, where iBGP peers generally will not be.Before we get too much farther into BGP theory, let?s get a configuration started. You?ll use the router bgp command to configure a router as a BGP speaker. Right after that, the neighbor command will be used to identify this BGP speaker?s potential neighbors. (The terms "peer" and "neighbor" are interchangeable in BGP, but it's the neighbor statement that is used to statically define neighbors. BGP is not capable of discovering neighbors dynamically.)R1(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.3 remote-as 200While almost all of the neighbor options are just that -- optional -- you do have to specify the BGP AS of the remote router. BGP has no mechanism to dynamically discover neighbors. Remember, BGP speakers do not have to be in the same AS to become peers. To verify that the remote BGP speaker has become a peer, run show ip bgp neighbor.R1#show ip bgp neighborBGP neighbor is 172.12.123.3, remote AS 200, external linkBGP version 4, remote router ID 0.0.0.0BGP state = ActiveLast read 00:01:39, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 secondsReceived 0 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queueSent 0 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queueRoute refresh request: received 0, sent 0Default minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 secondsThe output here can be a little misleading the first time you read it. The first highlighted line shows 172.12.123.3 is a BGP neighbor, is located in AS 200, and is an external link, indicating that the neighbor is in another AS entirely. The second highlighted line shows the BGP state as Active. This sounds great, but it actually means that a BGP peer connection does not yet exist with the prospective neighbor.So even though the show ip bgp neighbor output indicated that this is an Active neighbor relationship, that?s not as good as it sounds. Of course, the reason the peer relationship hasn?t been established is that we haven?t configured R3 yet!R3(config)#router bgp 200
R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 remote-as 100Verify the peer establishment with show ip bgp neighbor:R3#show ip bgp neighborBGP neighbor is 172.12.123.1, remote AS 100, external linkBGP version 4, remote router ID 172.12.123.1BGP state = Established, up for 00:01:18Last read 00:00:17, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 secondsLocal host: 172.12.123.3, Local port: 179 (BGP uses TCP Port 179)Foreign host: 172.12.123.1, Foreign port: 11007
The peer relationship between R1 and R3 has been established.Now that you know how the neighbor relationship itself is built, you can start learning the many options of the neighbor command. You?ll have to master these to become a CCNP and CCIE, and we?ll start looking at those commands in the next part of this BGP tutorial!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #bsci #bgp #neighbor #peer #tcp #179 #exam #pass #router #attribute #tutorial #free
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Not All Static Routes Are unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Not All Static Routes Are Created Equal***

As a CCNP candidate, and in getting ready to pass the BSCI exam, you may be tempted to breeze through your static route studies, or even skip them! That's because static routes are easy enough to configure, and as long as you remember the syntax of the ip route command, you're in good shape.But there's one vital detail regarding static routes that many exam candidates miss. That's because many CCNA and CCNP books say "the administrative distance of a static route is 1", but that is not quite accurate.You know from your CCNA studies that the ip route command is used to create a static route, and that you have the option of configuring a local exit interface or a next-hop IP address at the end of the command. However, the administrative distances are not the same. The AD of a static route that uses a local exit interface is zero! (That's because the router considers a static route with a local exit interface to actually be a directly connected network.) The AD of a static route with a next-hop IP address is 1.Therefore, if the router has the following two ip route statements to consider...Router(config)#ip route 172.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 fast0Router(config)#ip route 172.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 210.1.1.1... the prefix lengths are the same, so the static route using the local exit interface fastethernet0 will be preferred due to its lower AD, and will be installed into the routing table.Keep the details in mind on the job and in the exam room, and you?re on your way to CCNP exam success!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bsci #exam #cisco #certification #static #route #ip #command #ad #distance #prefix #interface
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ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Configuring And Troubleshoo unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Configuring And Troubleshooting OSPF Virtual Links***

Knowing when and how to create an OSPF virtual link is an essential skill for BSCI and CCNP exam success, not to mention how important it can be on your job! As a CCNA and CCNP candidate, you know the theory of virtual links, so let's take a look at how to configure a virtual link, as well as some real-world tips that many CCNA and CCNP study guides leave out!In this configuration, no router with an interface in Area 4 has a physical interface in Area 0. This means a logical connection to Area 0, a virtual link, must be built.In the following example, R1 and R3 are adjacent and both have interfaces in Area 0. R4 has an adjacency with R3 via Area 34, but R4 has no physical interface in Area 0 and is advertising its loopback 4.4.4.4 into OSPF. R1 doesn't have the route to that loopback.R1#show ip route ospf6.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO 6.6.6.6 [110 / 11] via 10.1.1.5, 01:05:45, Ethernet0172.23.0.0 / 27 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO IA 172.23.23.0 [110 / 74] via 172.12.123.3, 00:04:14, Serial07.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO 7.7.7.7 [110 / 11] via 10.1.1.5, 01:05:45, Ethernet0To resolve this, a virtual link will be built between R3 and R4 through Area 34. The area through which the virtual link is built, the transit area, cannot be a stub area of any kind.R4(config)#router ospf 1R4(config-router)#area 34 virtual-link 3.3.3.3R3(config)#router ospf 12d07h: %OSPF-4-ERRRCV: Received invalid packet: mismatch area ID, from backbone area must be virtual-link but not found from 172.23.23.4, Ethernet0R3(config)#router ospf 1R3(config-router)#area 34 virtual-link 4.4.4.4R3(config-router)#^Z2d07h: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 4.4.4.4 on OSPF_VL0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading DoneA few details worth noting... the virtual link command uses the remote device's RID, not necessarily the IP address on the interface that's in the transit area. Also, don't worry about that error message you see in the output from R3 that is normal and you'll see it until you finish building the virtual link.Always confirm the virtual link with show ip ospf virtual-link. If you've configured it correctly, the VL should come up in a matter of seconds.R3#show ip ospf virtual-linkVirtual Link OSPF_VL0 to router 4.4.4.4 is upRun as demand circuitDoNotAge LSA allowed.Transit area 34, via interface Ethernet0, Cost of using 10Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT,Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5Hello due in 00:00:00Adjacency State FULL (Hello suppressed)Index 2 / 4, retransmission queue length 1, number of retransmission 1First 0x2C8F8E(15) / 0x0(0) Next 0x2C8F8E(15) / 0x0(0)Last retransmission scan length is 1, maximum is 1Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msecLink State retransmission due in 3044 msecVirtual links are actually simple to configure, but for some reason they seem to intimidate people. It's my experience that the error message highlighted in R3's output above causes a lot of panic, but the only thing that message means is that you're not finished configuring the virtual link yet.There are three main misconfigurations that cause 99% of virtual link configuration issues:Using the wrong OSPF RID valueTrying to use a stub area as the transit areaFailure to configure link authentication on the virtual link when Area 0 is running authenticationThat last one is the one that gets forgotten! A virtual link is really an extension of Area 0, and if Area 0 is running link authentication, the virtual link must be configured for it as well. Pay attention to the details. don't panic when you see the error message on the second router you configure with the virtual link, and you'll be ready for any virtual link situation on the job or in the CCNA / CCNP exam room!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #bsci #ospf #virtual #links #stub #total #area #ccna #pass #free #transit
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Home Lab Tutorial: Configuring An Access unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Home Lab Tutorial: Configuring An Access Server***

As your CCNA / CCNP home lab expands, an access server such as the Cisco 2509 or 2511 is one of the best investments you can make. In this article, we'll look at the basic configuration for an access server and discuss how to connect to the other routers and switches in your pod through the AS.Here's part of a configuration from one of my access servers:ip host FRS 2006 100.1.1.1ip host SW2 2005 100.1.1.1ip host SW1 2004 100.1.1.1ip host R2 2002 100.1.1.1ip host R1 2001 100.1.1.1ip host R3 2003 100.1.1.1interface Loopback0ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.255no ip directed-broadcastThis is an IP Host table, and this is what makes the entire AS setup work. Your PC will connect to the access server, and the access server is in turn physically connected to your other routers and switches via an octal cable. One end of the octal cable splices off into eight separate cables, each terminated with an Rj-45 connector. That connector will be placed into the console port of one of your home lab devices. In this configuration, I have connector 1 connected to the console port of R1, connector 2 to R2, connector 3 to R3, connector 4 to Sw1, and so forth. (The connectors are physically numbered as well.)The IP Host table entries here are linked to the loopback address shown. The loopback can be any address, but it must match the address in the IP Host table. This allows you to create reverse telnet sessions to the routers and switches.To open the reverse telnet sessions upon opening a connection to the AS, type the entire name of the device and press the enter key twice. A connection to that device will now be visible, as shown here:Access_Server#r1Trying R1 (100.1.1.1, 2001)... OpenR1#To get back to the access server, use the key combination followed by pressing the "x" key. Keep doing this until you've opened a connection to every router and switch in your pod.Once you've opened the lines, you will not use the full device name to connect to the home lab devices. You should press only the number corresponding to the reverse telnet session you opened. For instance, in this configuration I opened telnet session 1 to R1, session 2 to R2, and session 3 to R3. Once I opened those sessions, I just use those numbers to reconnect to the devices, as shown here:Access_server#1[Resuming connection 1 to r1 ... ]R1#Access_server#2[Resuming connection 2 to r2 ... ]R2#Access_server#3[Resuming connection 3 to r3 ... ]R3#If you type the full hostname again after initially opening the connection, you will see this message:Access_server#r1Trying R1 (100.1.1.1, 2001)...% Connection refused by remote hostThe connection is refused because you already have an open connection to that router.There's one more important part of an access server config your CCNA / CCNP home lab will need:line 1 8no exectransport input allThe line numbers may differ according to your access server, but "no exec" is very important here. This will stop rogue EXEC sessions from refusing connections that it shouldn't be refusing. Without this command, you'll commonly see "connection refused by remote host" when you shouldn't be. That message is the most common error you'll see on an access server, and it's there because you already have an open connection or you left "no exec" out of your configuration. "No exec" isn't mandatory, but it will help you keep your sanity!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccna #ccnp #home #lab #access #server #free #pass #exam #octal #cable #bsci #bcmsn #Bryant #advantag
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Leading Zero Compression** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Leading Zero Compression***

The BSCI exam and CCNP certification requires that you be well versed in the basics of IP Version 6, or IPv6. If you're new to IPv6, you'll quickly learn that it's not exactly just two more octets slapped onto an IPv4 address! IPv6 addresses are quite long, but there are two ways to acceptably shorten IPv6 address expression. To pass the BSCI exam, become a CCNP, and get that all-important understanding of IPv6, you've got to understand these different methods of expressing an IPv6 address. My last IPv6 tutorial discussed zero compression; today we'll take a look at leading zero compression.Leading zero compression allows us to drop the leading zeroes from every field in the address. Where we could only use zero compression once in an IPv6 address expression, leading zero compression can be used as often as is appropriate. The key with leading zero compression is that there must be at least one number left in each field, even if that remaining number is a zero.You sometimes see books or websites refer to leading zero compression as "dropping zeroes and replacing them with a colon", but that explanation can be a little confusing, since the blocks are separated with a colon to begin with. You're not really replacing the leading zeroes, you're dropping them.Let's look at an example of leading zero compression. Taking the address 1234:0000:1234:0000:1234:0000:1234:0123, we have four different fields that have leading zeroes. The address could be written out as it is, or drop the leading zeroes.Original format: 1234:0000:1234:0000:1234:0000:0123:1234With leading zero compression: 1234:0:1234:0:1234:0:123:1234There's no problem with using zero compression and leading zero compression in the same address, as shown here:Original format: 1111:0000:0000:1234:0011:0022:0033:0044With zero and leading zero compression: 1111::1234:11:22:33:44Zero compression uses the double-colon to replace the second and third block of numbers, which were all zeroes; leading zero compression replaced the "00" at the beginning of each of the last four blocks. Just be careful and take your time with both zero compression and leading zero compression and you'll do well on the exam and in the real world. The keys to success here are remembering that you can only use zero compression once in a single address, and that while leading zero compression can be used as often as needed, at least one number must remain in each field, even if that number is a zero.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the BSCI exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccnp #bsci #ipv6 #ip #version #6 #zero #leading #compression #free #tutorial #pass #exam #ccna #chri
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: IP Version 6 Zero Compress unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: IP Version 6 Zero Compression***

BSCI exam success is all part of becoming a CCNP, and part of that success is now learning the basics of IP Version 6, or IPv6. One of the most difficult parts of learning IPv6 concepts is the radically different addressing scheme that IPv6 uses as compared to IPv4. Just look at these sample addresses:Typical IPv4 address: 129.14.12.200Typical IPv6 address: 1029:9183:81AE:0000:0000:0AC1:2143:019BAs you can see, IPv6 isn't exactly just tacking two more octets onto an IPv4 address!I haven't met too many networkers who really like typing, particularly numbers. You'll be happy to know there are some rules that will shorten those addresses a bit, and it's a very good idea to be fluent with these rules for your exam.You remember from your CCNA studies that there's no difference between an upper-case letter and lower-case letter in hexadecimal. That's one of three basic rules you need to know when working with IPv6 addressing. The other factors deal with all the zeroes you'll run into in IPv6 addresses! One of these rules is the rule of zero compression.The rule of zero compression states that if an address contains consecutive fields of zeroes, they can be expressed with two colons. It doesn't matter if you have two fields or eight, you can simply type two colons and that will represent all of them. The key here is that you can only do this once in an IPv6 address. This is referred to as zero compression. Here's an example:Original format: 1234:1234:0000:0000:0000:0000:3456:3434Using zero compression: 1234:1234::3456:3434Again, you must remember that you can only do this once in an IPv6 address expression.What if there are zeroes in the address that don't quite fit this rule? The next part of our IPv6 tutorial will deal with leading zero compression, another tool you can use to shorten these long, long addresses!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the BSCI exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccnp #exam #free #pass #bsci #ipv6 #ip #version #6 #leading #zero #compression #address #router #swi
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: OSPF Router Types*** W unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: OSPF Router Types***

When you're preparing to pass the BSCI exam on the way to the coveted Cisco CCNP certification, you can be quickly overwhelmed by the sheer amount of BGP and OSPF knowledge you must demonstrate a mastery of. One set of details that some BSCI and CCNP candidates underestimate are the differences between the OSPF router types. The OSPF router types seem straightforward enough, but what you must keep in mind is that a router can fill more than one of these roles!An OSPF Internal router has one rule - it must have all its interfaces in a single area. It does not mean that area has to be Area 0.An OSPF Backbone router is a router with at least a single area in the OSPF backbone area, Area 0. A router can be both an Internal and Backbone router if all its interfaces are in Area 0.An Area Border Router has at least one interface in Area 0 and another interface in a non-backbone area. ABRs are also one of two router types that can perform OSPF route summarization. (To advertise a summary route from one OSPF area to another, use the area range command on the ABR.)Finally, an ASBR is an OSPF router that is performing route redistribution by injecting routes from another source into the OSPF domain. This is the other OSPF router type that can perform route summarization; to summarize routes being redistributed into OSPF, use the summary-address command on the ASBR.There are several commands you can use to determine the router types in a given OSPF area. The command "show ip ospf" will display quite a bit of information regarding the local router, and this includes whether that router is acting as an ABR or ASBR. To see the routes to the ABRs and ASBRs from the local router, run "show ip ospf border-routers".Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the BSCI exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Bsci #ccnp #exam #ospf #router #type #internal #abr #asbr #redistribution #border #router #pass #ccn
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco / MCSE Exam Study: Creating A Road Map To Success*** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco / MCSE Exam Study: Creating A Road Map To Success***

Planning for success on the CCNA, CCNP, and other Cisco exams is much like taking a trip in your car. You've got to plan ahead, accept the occasional detour, and just keep on going until you get there. But what do you do before you get started?Create a road map - for success.If you were driving from one side of the country to another, you certainly wouldn't just get in your car and start driving, would you? No. You would plan the trip out ahead of time. What would happen if you just got in the car and started driving in the hope that you would someday arrive at your final destination? You would never get there, and you'd spend a lot of time wandering aimlessly.Don't spend your study time and slow your progress by studying for a Cisco exam without planning the trip. Schedule your study time as you would an appointment with a client, and keep that appointment. Make sure that your study time is quality study - turn your TV, iPod, and cell off. If you hit a bump in the road and don't get your certification the first time you take the exam, regroup and create another plan. Study until you get to the point that on exam day, you know that you are already a CCNA or CCNP and you?re just there at the testing center to make it official.The journey to success is not a straight line. When you look at a chart that shows a company's financial progress, the line never goes straight up. there are some ups and downs, but the overall result is success. The path to your eventual career and certification exam success may not be a direct one, but the important part is to get started - and to get any journey started, you've got to create a road map for a successful arrival at your destination.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccna #mcse #ccnp #bsci #pass #exam #free #success #router #switch #cisco #Microsoft #mcse
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: CCNA Recertification Requirements** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: CCNA Recertification Requirements***

Passing the CCNA exam and earning this coveted Cisco certification is an important step in your career, but it's not the end of your responsibilities as a CCNA! When you work with computer networks, you've got to be continually learning and staying up on the latest technologies and changes in the field. Part of this responsibility is keeping your CCNA current by meeting Cisco's recertification requirements.Cisco requires CCNAs to recertify once every three years. While most CCNAs will move on to the CCNP in that time, if you choose not to you must meet certain requirements in order to keep your CCNA valid. Cisco does this to ensure that CCNAs keep their networking knowledge current, which in turn helps the CCNA certification valuable. And that's exactly what you want, since you worked so hard to earn your certification in the first place!As of March 2006, there are five different options for recertifying as a CCNA. You can take and pass any of the following exams to renew your CCNA - the CCNA exam itself, the ICND exam, any 642 series exam, any Cisco Qualiied Specialist exam (except the Sales Specialist exams - those don't count!), or any CCIE Written Qualification exam.With all these options, there's an option that's just right for you. Whether you just want to renew your CCNA or pursue a Specialist, CCNP, or CCIE certification, you can easily renew your CCNA along the way. Just don't forget that keeping up with Cisco's latest recertification requirements is your responsibility, and that's easy to do - just visit Cisco's "Learning And Events" section on their website. Cisco will tell you what you need to do to keep your certification, but it's up to you to keep up with certification program changes! Once your certification expires, it?s gone, so get in the habit of visiting Cisco?s website to make sure you?re up to date on important recertification requirements.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNA exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccna #exam #tutorial #recertify #how #recertification #ccnp #bsci #ccie #cisco #router #switch
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: A Guide To Ipv6 Addressing unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: A Guide To Ipv6 Addressing***

Learning IPv6 is paramount in your efforts to pass the BSCI exam and go on to earn your CCNP, and it's going to help in your real-world networking career as well. IPv6 can be confusing at first, but it's like anything else in Cisco or networking as a whole - learn one part at a time, master the fundamentals, and you're on your way to success. In today's article we're going to take a look at IPv6 address types.In IPv4, a unicast address is simply an address used to represent a single host, where multicast addresses represent a group of hosts and broadcasts represent all hosts.In IPv6, it's not quite that simple. There are actually different types of unicast addresses, each with its own separate function. This allows IPv6 to get data where it's supposed to go quicker than IPv4 while conserving router resources.IPv6 offers two kinds of local addresses, link-local and site-local. Site-local addresses allow devices in the same organization, or site, to exchange data. Site-local addresses are IPv6's equivalent to IPv4's private address classes, since hosts using them are able to communicate with each other throughout the organization, but these addresses cannot be used to reach Internet hosts.Site-local and link-local addresses are actually derived from a host's MAC address. Therefore, if HostA has HostB's IPv6 address, HostA can determine HostB's MAC address from that, making ARP unnecessary.Link-local addresses have a smaller scope than site-local. Link-local addresses are just that, local to a physical link. These particular addresses are not used at all in forwarding data. One use for these addresses is Neighbor Discovery, which is IPv6's answer to ARP.You can identify these and other IPv6 addresses by their initial bits:001 - Global address(first 96 bits set to zero) - IPv4-compatible address1111 1111 ? Multicast1111 1110 11 - Site local1111 1110 10 - Link LocalAs a future CCNP, you're more than familiar with the reserved IPv4 address classes. You also know that they're not exactly contiguous. The developers of IPv6 took a structured approach to IPv6 reserved addresses - any address that begins with "0000 0000" is an IPv6 reserved address. One of these is the IPv6 loopback address, and this will give you some practice with your zero compression!IP v6 Loopback: 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001Using Leading Zero Compression Only: 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1Combining Leading Zero and Zero Compression: ::1Zero compression looks pretty good now, doesn't it? You just have to get used to it and keep the rules in mind. You can use all the leading zero compression you want, but zero compression ("double-colon") can only be used once in a single address.IPv6 is here to stay, not only on your BSCI and CCNP exams, but in the real world as well. Learning it now will not only aid you in passing your Cisco exams, but in supporting IPv6 in the future.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccnp #bsci #ip #version #6 #ipv6 #address #unicast #multicast #anycast #broadcast #site #link #local
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: EIGRP Stub Routing*** Passi unimarter UniMarter
***CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: EIGRP Stub Routing***

Passing the BCSI exam and earning your CCNP certification requires you to know OSPF stub areas inside and out. Stub areas, total stub areas, a little study on not-so-stub stub areas ... and pretty soon your head is swimming. Then when you hear that EIGRP offers stub routing, your first reaction may be unprintable! But while EIGRP stub routing is effective in the right situation, it's not as complex as OSPF stub routing. Let's take a look at basic EIGRP stub routing.While EIGRP does not have the stub area options that OSPF does, EIGRP does allow a router to be configured as stub. This is commonly done with a hub-and-spoke configuration where the spoke routers do not have the resources to keep a full routing table. Since the spoke's next hop will always be the hub, all the spoke really needs is a default route. For this reason, the only neighbor an EIGRP stub router can have is the hub router. (Obviously, the hub would never be configured as stub.)Configuring EIGRP stub routers also combats the SIA problem. EIGRP stub routers are not queried for routes when the hub does not have a feasible successor for a successor route that has gone down.By default, EIGRP stub routers advertise information about two types of routes back to the hub - directly connected networks and summary routes. To change this default, use the eigrp stub command followed by the types of routes you want the stub to advertise back to the hub. (The eigrp stub command run by itself configures the router as stub.)R1(config)#router eigrp 100 R1(config-router)#eigrp stub ?connected Do advertise connected routesreceive-only Set IP-EIGRP as receive only neighborstatic Do advertise static routessummary Do advertise summary routesFor example, consider a network where R5 is the hub and R4, R6, and R7 are the spokes.As long as R4, R6, and R7 have a neighbor relationship only with the hub, they can be configured as stub routers. They will then advertise their directly connected networks and summary routes back to the hub and will receive only a default route back from the hub. If R5 loses a successor and has no feasible successor, it will not send a query packet to any of the stub routers.EIGRP stub routing doesn?t give us all the options that OSPF stub routing does, but it is much simple to configure and can greatly reduce unnecessary Query packet transmission in a hub-and-spoke network.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bsci #eigrp #stub #routing #query #packet #configuration #free #tutorial #hub #spoke #network
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