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@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***CCNA / MCSE / CCNP Certification: Making Failure Work For unimarter UniMarter
***CCNA / MCSE / CCNP Certification: Making Failure Work For You***

Whether you're on the road to the CCNA, CCNP, MCSE, or you're on any other computer certification track, the odds are that sooner or later, you're going to fail an exam. It's happened to almost all of us, yours truly included. What you have to keep in mind in these times is that success is not a straight line. You've probably seen charts showing the growth of an industry or a business -- you know, the ones that go from left to right, and look kind of jagged. The line goes up for a while, then down a bit, then up some more, then down a little.The key? While every business has its setbacks, the net result is that the line goes up and progress is made. That's how you want your certification pursuit and your career to go as well - upward!I'm not asking you to be happy about failing an exam. You're allowed to get mad for a few minutes, vow to never take another exam again, and be disappointed. What you're not allowed to do is stay that way.If you put your books away in a fit of anger, get them out. If you took some time off, it's time to get back to work. Again, there's nothing wrong with being unhappy about failing an exam. It's how you handle that failure that counts. No inventor, executive, or entrepreneur has ever been right 100% of the time. Learn something from your failure. Was your study time quality study time? Did you get some hands-on practice with the technology you're studying? Asking yourself these questions can be tough, but it can be highly valuable in making sure you don't fail the next time. And there must be a next time - because the one thing you cannot do is quit.Besides, take it from someone who's been there - your temporary failure makes your eventual success that much sweeter.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #cisco #certification #exam #fail #mcse #ccnp #icnd #intro #pass #free #tutorial #chris #bryant
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@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: 10 ISIS Details You Must K unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: 10 ISIS Details You Must Know!***

Earning your CCNP certification and passing the BSCI exam depends on knowing the details of many Cisco technologies, ISIS chief among them. To help you prepare for exam success, here's a list of ISIS terminology and basic concepts that will help you pass this tough exam. Enjoy!ISIS Terms:Domain: section of the network under common administrative controlArea: logical segment of the network composed of contiguous routers and their data linksIntermediate System: A router.End System: A host device.The four levels of ISIS routing:Level 0: ES-IS routing in the same subnet.Level 1: IS-IS routing in the same area.Level 2: IS-IS routing in the same domain.Level 3: Inter-domain routing performed by InterDomain Routing Protocol (IDRP).ISIS Adjacency Possibilities:L1: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area and any L1 / L2 in the same area.L2: Can form adjacency with any L2 in any area, and with an L1 / L2 in any area.L1 / L2: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area, L1 / L2 in any area, and L2 in any area.A router interface?s SNPA (Subnetwork Point Of Attachment) is its highest DLCI number if it?s on a Frame network, and its MAC address if the interface is on an Ethernet segment.ISIS Hello Types:ESH: ES Hello ? Sent by End Systems to discover a router.ISH: IS Hello ? Send by Intermediate Systems to announce their presence. End Systems listen for these.IIH: IS-to-IS Hello ? Send by one IS to be heard by another IS. These hellos makes IS-IS adjacencies possible.Best of luck on your CCNP exams!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #certification #cisco #isis #evel #router #end #system #iis #hello #type #adjacency #level -1
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Review: Protocol Basic unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Review: Protocol Basics***

To earn your Cisco CCNA certification and pass the BSCI CCNP exam, you have to know your protocol basics like the back of your hand! To help you review these important concepts, here's a quick look at the basics of RIPv1, RIPv2, IGRP, and EIGRP.RIPv1: Broadcasts updates every 30 seconds to the address 255.255.255.255. RIPv1 is a classful protocol, and it does not recognize VLSM, nor does it carry subnet masking information in its routing updates. Update contains entire RIP routing table. Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. Allows equal-cost load-balancing by default. Max hop count is 15. Does not support clear-text or MD5 authentication of routing updates. Updates carry 25 routes maximum.RIPv2: Multicasts updates every 30 seconds to the address 224.0.0.9. RIPv2 is a classless protocol, allowing the use of subnet masks. Update contains entire RIP routing table. Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. Allows equal-cost load-balancing by default. Max hop count is 15. Supports clear-text and MD5 authentication of routing updates. Updates carry 25 routes maximum.IGRP: Broadcasts updates every 90 seconds to the address 255.255.255.255. IGRP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol, and is also a classful protocol and does not recognize subnet masking. Update contains entire routing table. Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. Equal-cost load-balancing on by default; unequal-cost load-sharing can be used with the variance command. Max hop count is 100.EIGRP: Multicasts full routing table only when an adjacency is first formed. Multicasts updates only when there is a change in the network topology, and then only advertises the change. Multicasts to 224.0.0.10 and allows the use of subnet masks. Uses DUAL routing algorithm. Unequal-cost load-sharing available with the variance command.By mastering the basics of these protocols, you're laying the foundation for success in the exam room and when working on production networks. Pay attention to the details and the payoff is "CCNA" and "CCNP" behind your name!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNA exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #exam #protocol #ccnp #bsci #protocol #rip #igrp #eigrp #multicast #address #free #equal #cost
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: ISDN And Mul unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: ISDN And Multilink PPP***

ISDN is a huge topic on both your Cisco CCNA and BCRAN CCNP exams. While many ISDN topics seem straightforward, it?s the details that make the difference in the exam room and working with ISDN in production networks. Configuring and troubleshooting multilink PPP is just one of the skills you?ll need to pass both of these demanding exams.With BRI, we've got two B-channels to carry data, and both of them have a 64-kbps capacity. You might think it would be a good idea to have both channels in operation before one reaches capacity, and it is a great idea Problem is, it's not a default behavior of ISDN. The second b-channel will not begin to carry traffic until the first one reaches capacity.With Multilink PPP (MLP), a bandwidth capacity can be set that will allow the second b-channel to bear data before the first channel reaches capacity. The configuration for MLP is simple, but often misconfigured. We'll use our good friend IOS Help to verify the measurement this command uses.Enabling MLP is a three-step process:Enable PPP on the linkEnable MLP with the command ppp multilinkDefine the threshold at which the second b-channel should start carrying data with the dialer load-threshold command.Let's say you wanted the second b-channel to start carrying data when the first channel reaches 75% of capacity. It would make sense that the command to do so would be dialer load-threshold 75... but it's not.R1(config)#int bri0R1(config-if)#ppp multilinkR1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold ? Load threshold to place another callThe dialer load-threshold value is based on 255, not 100. To have this command bring the line up at a certain percentage, multiply that percentage in decimal format by 255. Below, I multiplied 255 by .75 (75%) to arrive at 191.R1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold 191 ?either Threshold decision based on max of inbound and outbound trafficinbound Threshold decision based on inbound traffic onlyoutbound Threshold decision based on outbound traffic onlyR1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold 191 eitherAs illustrated by IOS Help in the above configuration, dialer load-threshold has additional options as well. You can configure the interface to consider only incoming, outgoing, or all traffic when calculating when to bring the next channel up.Configuring Multilink PPP is just one of the skills you?ll need to earn your CCNA and pass the CCNP BCRAN exam. Don?t underestimate ISDN on Cisco?s certification exams!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #cisco #certification #ccnp #bcran #isdn #multilink #ppp #encapsulation #bri #pass #free #ccie
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Exam Tutorial: EIGRP Dual Queries, SIA, A unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Exam Tutorial: EIGRP Dual Queries, SIA, And Stub Routers***

EIGRP is a major subject of the CCNA exam, and Cisco goes into even more detail with EIGRP on your CCNP exams. Part of that detail is the purpose and configuration of EIGRP stub routers.A problem with EIGRP comes in when a successor is lost and there is no feasible successor. DUAL doesn't give up that easily, though. DUAL will mark the route as Active, indicating that the route is being calculated and cannot be used to route data, and will send out a Query message.A DUAL Query is basically one neighbor asking another, "Hey, do you know how to get to this network I just lost my route to?" If that neighbor has a route, the query will be answered with that route; if the neighbor doesn't have such a route, that neighbor will ask its neighbors. The process continues until a downstream router replies with the desired route, or the EIGRP downstream routers run out of neighbors to ask.It's a good idea to limit the scope of your DUAL queries, otherwise routes may go into Stuck In Active state during this reconfiguration. Route summarization helps to limit queries, as does configuration of EIGRP stub routers.While EIGRP does not have the stub area options that OSPF does, EIGRP does allow a router to be configured as stub. This is commonly done with a hub-and-spoke configuration where the spoke routers do not have the resources to keep a full routing table. Since the spoke's next hop will always be the hub, all the spoke really needs is a default route. For this reason, the only neighbor an EIGRP stub router can have is the hub router. (Obviously, the hub would never be configured as stub.)Configuring EIGRP stub routers also combats the SIA problem. EIGRP stub routers are not queried for routes when the hub does not have a feasible successor for a successor route that has gone down.By default, EIGRP stub routers advertise information about two types of routes back to the hub - directly connected networks and summary routes. To change this default, use the eigrp stub command followed by the types of routes you want the stub to advertise back to the hub. (The eigrp stub command run by itself configures the router as stub.)R1(config)#router eigrp 100R1(config-router)#eigrp stub ?connected Do advertise connected routesreceive-only Set IP-EIGRP as receive only neighborstatic Do advertise static routessummary Do advertise summary routesAssume a network where R5 is the hub and R4, R6, and R7 are spokes. As long as the spokes have a neighbor relationship only with the hub, they can be configured as stub routers. They will then advertise their directly connected networks and summary routes back to the hub and will receive only a default route back from the hub. If R5 loses a successor and has no feasible successor, it will not send a query packet to any of the stub routers.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #ccnp #eigrp #stub #router #stuck #in #active #sia #query #lost #successor #feasible
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Tutorial: Frame Relay End-T unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Tutorial: Frame Relay End-To-End Keepalives***

One of the first things you learned about Frame is that the LMI also serves as a keepalive, or a heartbeat - and if three consecutive LMIs are missed, the line protocol goes down. There's a limitation to LMI as a keepalive, though. The LMI is exchanged only between the DTE and the closest DCE. The LMI is therefore a local keepalive that does not reflect any possible issues on the remote end of the virtual circuit.Taking the LMI concept to the next logical level, Frame Relay End-To-End Keepalives (FREEK, one of the least-heard Cisco acronyms for some reason) are used to verify that endpoint-to-endpoint communications are functioning properly.What you have to keep in mind about FREEK is that each and every PVC needs two separate keepalive processes. Remember, with a PVC, there's no guarantee that the path taking through the frame relay cloud to get from R1 to R2 is going to be the same path taken to go back from R2 to R1. One process will be used to send requests for information and handle the responses to these requests; this is the send side. When the send side transmits a keepalive request, a response is expected in a certain number of seconds. If one is not received, an error event is noted. If enough error events are recorded, the VC's keepalive status is marked as down.The process that responds to the other side's requests is the receive side.This being Cisco, we've got to have some modes, right? FREEK has four operational modes.Bidirectional mode enables both the send and receive process enabled on the router, meaning that the router will send requests and process responses (send side) and will also respond to remote requests for information (receive side).Request mode enables only the send process. The router will send requests and process responses to those requests, but will not answer requests from other routers.Reply mode enables only the receive process. The router will respond to requests from other routers but will initiate no requests of its own.Finally, passive reply mode allows the router to respond to requests, but no timers are set and no events are tracked.Frame Relay End-To-End Keepalive defaults:Two send or receive errors must be registered in order for the VC to be considered down.The event window size is three. The event window is the number of events considered by the router when determining the status of the VC. Therefore, using the defaults, two send or receive errors would have to be received within the event window of three events for the VC to be considered down.The timer mentioned earlier - the amount of time a router waits for a response - is set to 10 secondsWorking with Frame Relay end-to-end keepalives is just one Frame skill you?ll need to pass the CCNP exams ? and I wouldn?t be surprised to see them on a CCIE exam. Know the details and you?re on your way to Cisco certification exam success!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #frame #relay #keepalive #end #to #exam #pass #free #tutorial #pvc #svc #map #chris #ccie
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: Dialer Watch* unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: Dialer Watch***

Dialer Watch is a vital part of your CCNA and CCNP studies, particularly for the BCRAN exam, but it's one of the most misunderstood technologies as well. To help you pass the CCNA and CCNP certification exams, here's a detailed look at Dialer Watch.Dialer Watch allows you to configure a route or routes as "watched" when the watched route leaves the routing table and there is no other valid route to that specific destination, the ISDN link will come up. In the following example, R1 and R2 are connected by both a Frame Relay cloud over the 172.12.123.0 / 24 network and an ISDN cloud using the 172.12.12.0 / 24 network. The routers are running OSPF over the Frame cloud, and R1 is advertising its loopback of 1.1.1.1 / 32 as well as an Ethernet segment, 10.1.1.0 / 24, via OSPF. R2 has both of these routes in its OSPF table, as shown below.R2#show ip route ospf1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO 1.1.1.1 [110 / 65] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial010.0.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO 10.1.1.0 [110 / 128] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:08, Serial0We want R2 to place a call to R1 if either the loopback or Ethernet networks leave R2's routing table, but we don't want to have to depend on interesting traffic. That dictates the use of Dialer Watch.First, configure the list of watched routes with dialer watch-list. Only one of the watched routes needs to leave the routing table for the ISDN link to come up. In this example, R2 will watch both routes from its OSPF routing table.Be careful with this command. The entries here need to match exactly the routes and masks being watched. Dialer watch-lists use subnet masks, not wildcard masks.R2(config)#dialer watch-list 5 ip 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0R2(config)#dialer watch-list 5 ip 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255Configure the dialer watch-group command on the BRI interface, AND frame map statements for the watched routes. As with dialer-list and dialer-group, the group number referenced in the dialer watch-group command must match the number assigned to the dialer watch-list.The Dialer Watch configuration will not work without frame map statements for each watched route. I repeat this because this is the step a lot of people leave out.R2(config)#interface bri0R2(config-if)#dialer watch-group 5R2(config-if)# dialer map ip 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255. name R1 5557777 broadcastR2(config-if)# dialer map ip 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 name R1 5557777 broadcastTo test Dialer Watch, the Serial0 interface on R2 will be shut down. Since we're running OSPF, the route table will be updated almost immediately and the ISDN link should come up right after that.R2(config)#int s0R2(config-if)#shut01:12:47: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 1.1.1.1 on Serial0 from FULL to DOWN, N
eighbor Down: Interface down or detached01:12:47: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up01:12:48: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console01:12:48: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state
to up01:12:49: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0, changed state to administratively
down01:12:50: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state
to down01:12:53: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 5557777 R1Within five seconds, the ISDN link is up. show dialer verifies that Dialer Watch is the reason the line was brought up.R2#show dialerBRI0 - dialer type = ISDNDial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status5557777 2 0 00:00:11 successful0 incoming call(s) have been screened.0 incoming call(s) rejected for callback.BRI0:1 - dialer type = ISDNIdle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs)Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs)Dialer state is data link layer upDial reason: Dialing on watched route lossTime until disconnect 108 secsConnected to 5557777 (R1)
A final note regarding Dialer Watch ... it will not work with RIP, but will with all our other dynamic IGPs (IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF).Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #ccnp #isdn #dialer #watch #list #pass #free #chris #bryant #ccie #12933 #advantage
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: Configuring P unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: Configuring PPP Callback***

You may run into situations where a router in a remote location needs to dial in to a central router, but the toll charges are much higher if the remote router makes the call. This scenario is perfect for PPP Callback, where the callback client places a call to a callback server, authentication takes place, and the server then hangs up on the client! This ensures that the client isn't charged for the call. The server then calls the client back.In the following example, R2 has been configured as the client and R1 is the callback server. Let's look at both configurations and the unique commands PPP Callback requires.Client:username R1 password CCIEinterface BRI0ip address 172.12.12.2 255.255.255.0encapsulation pppdialer map ip 172.12.12.1 name R1 broadcast 5557777dialer-group 1isdn switch-type basic-nippp callback requestppp authentication chapMost of that configuration will look familiar to you, but the ppp callback request command might not. This command enables the BRI interface to request the callback.Simple enough, right? The PPP Callback Server config requires more configuration and an additional map-class as well.Server:username R2 password CCIE
interface BRI0ip address 172.12.12.1 255.255.255.0encapsulation pppdialer callback-securedialer map ip 172.12.12.2 name R2 class CALL_R2_BACK broadcast 5558888dialer-group 1isdn switch-type basic-nippp callback acceptppp authentication chapmap-class dialer CALL_R2_BACKdialer callback-server usernameExamining the PPP Callback Server command from the top down...dialer callback-secure enables security on the callback. If the remote router cannot be authenticated for callback, the incoming call will be disconnected.The dialer map statement now calls the class CALL_R2_BACK, shown at the bottom of the config excerpt.ppp callback accept enables PPP callback on this router.dialer callback-server username tells the callback server that the device referenced in the dialer map statement is a callback client.The only way to find out if the config works is to test it, so let's send a ping from R2 to R1 and see if the callback takes place.R2#ping 172.12.12.1Type escape sequence to abort.Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.12.12.1, timeout is 2 seconds:02:45:42: BR0 DDR: Dialing cause ip (s=172.12.12.2, d=172.12.12.1)02:45:42: BR0 DDR: Attempting to dial 555777702:45:42: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up02:45:42: BR0:1 DDR: Callback negotiated - Disconnecting now02:45:42: BR0:1 DDR: disconnecting call02:45:42: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 5557777 R102:45:42: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to down02:45:42: DDR: Callback client for R1 5557777 created02:45:42: BR0:1 DDR: disconnecting call.....Success rate is 0 percent (0 / 5)R2#02:45:57: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to upR2#02:45:57: BR0:1 DDR: Callback received from R1 555777702:45:57: DDR: Freeing callback to R1 555777702:45:57: BR0:1 DDR: dialer protocol up02:45:58: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to upThe callback was successfully negotiated, and the call then disconnected. R1 then called R2 back, and show dialer on R1 confirms the purpose of the call.R1#show dialerBRI0 - dialer type = ISDNDial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status5558888 2 4 00:00:20 successful0 incoming call(s) have been screened.0 incoming call(s) rejected for callback.BRI0:1 - dialer type = ISDNIdle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs)Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs)Dialer state is data link layer upDial reason: Callback return callTime until disconnect 99 secsConnected to 5558888 (R2)Pretty cool! PPP Callback isn?t just important for passing your CCNA and CCNP exams ? in circumstances such as shown in this example, it can save your organization quite a bit of money!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, "How To Pass The CCNA" and "How To Pass The CCNP", visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage! And coming in 2007 ? Microsoft Vista certification!

#ccna #ccnp #free #exam #ppp #callback #isdn #caller #client #server #pass #bcran #tutorial #bryant
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: Floating St unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: Floating Static Routes***

To pass the Cisco CCNA and CCNP certification exams, as well as becoming a world-class networker, you've got to know how and when to use floating static routes. And if you're wondering what makes them "float" -- read on!In this example, R1 and R2 are running OSPF over a Frame Relay network, 172.12.123.0 / 24. They're also connected by a BRI ISDN link, 172.12.12.0 / 24. R1 is advertising a loopback network, 1.1.1.1 / 32, via OSPF. We want R2 to have a route to that loopback even if the frame goes down - and here, we'll use a floating static route to make that happen.R2 sees the route to the loopback interface via OSPF, and can ping that interface successfully.R2#show ip route ospf1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO 1.1.1.1 [110 / 65] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:02, Serial0R2#ping 1.1.1.1Type escape sequence to abort.Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 1.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:!!!!!Success rate is 100 percent (5 / 5), round-trip min / avg / max = 68 / 68 / 68 msThis is when it's important to know your administrative distances.... or at least know where to look to see them! The AD of OSPF is 110, which means we can configure a static route to 1.1.1.1 / 32, and as long as the AD of the static route is higher than 110, it won't be used unless the OSPF route leaves the routing table. That's why this kind of route is called a "floating" static route - the route "floats" in the routing table and isn't seen unless the primary route leaves the table.You learned how to write a static route in your CCNA studies, but you also remember that the default AD of a static route is either 1 or 0... and both of those values are less than 110! To change the AD of a static route, configure the desired distance at the end of the ip route command.R2(config)#ip route 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 bri0 ? Distance metric for this routeA.B.C.D Forwarding router's addressname Specify name of the next hoppermanent permanent routetag Set tag for this routeR2(config)#ip route 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 bri0 111The static route has an AD that's only one higher than that of the OSPF route, but that's enough to make the route "float" and not yet be seen in the routing table.R2#show ip route1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO 1.1.1.1 [110 / 65] via 172.12.123.1, 00:06:44, Serial0172.12.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 2 subnetsC 172.12.12.0 is directly connected, BRI0C 172.12.123.0 is directly connected, Serial0Let's see the effect on the routing table when the Serial0 interface is closed.R2(config)#int s0R2(config-if)#shutdown12:04:53: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 172.12.123.1 on Serial0 from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached12:04:55: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console12:04:55: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0, changed state to administratively down12:04:56: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to downR2#show ip route1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsS 1.1.1.1 is directly connected, BRI0172.12.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsC 172.12.12.0 is directly connected, BRI0The floating static route appears in the table, but the ISDN link will not come up until the BRI interface has traffic to send. Let's ping 1.1.1.1 and see what happens. debug dialer was configured on R2 before sending the ping.R2#ping 1.1.1.1Type escape sequence to abort.Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 1.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:12:16:01: BR0 DDR: Dialing cause ip (s=172.12.12.2, d=1.1.1.1)12:16:01: BR0 DDR: Attempting to dial 835866112:16:01: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up.!!12:16:01: BR0:1 DDR: dialer protocol up!!Success rate is 80 percent (4 / 5), round-trip min / avg / max = 36 / 37 / 40 msThe link comes up and traffic can still reach 1.1.1.1. Once R2 becomes an OSPF neighbor of R1 again, the OSPF route will again become the primary path and the floating static route leaves the routing table.R2(config)#int s0R2(config-if)#no shutR2#show ip ospf neighborNeighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface172.12.123.1 1 FULL / DR 00:01:57 172.12.123.1 Serial0R2#show ip route1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO 1.1.1.1 [110 / 65] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:16, Serial0172.12.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 2 subnetsC 172.12.12.0 is directly connected, BRI0C 172.12.123.0 is directly connected, Serial0A floating static route is an excellent "back door" that will keep the ISDN link down while allowing that link to serve as a backup route. Just make sure the ISDN link comes down when you expect it to - always check that with show isdn status!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #bcran #floating #static #route #ip #isdn #bri #pass #free #tutorial #lab #distance #AD
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Exam Tutorial: Testing ISDN Links Without unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Exam Tutorial: Testing ISDN Links Without Pings***

To earn your Cisco CCNA and CCNP certifications, you've got to master ISDN - and despite what some people say, there's still a lot of ISDN out there that needs to be supported. And when it comes to troubleshooting ISDN, there's a lot to look at. Is the correct ISDN switchtype configured? Are the dialer map statements correct? What about the dialer-group and dialer-list commands? And that's just the start.I always say that all troubleshooting starts at Layer 1, the Physical layer of the OSI model. The usual method of troubleshooting ISDN is sending pings across the link, but the connection can be tested without using pings or even before assigning IP addresses to the BRI interfaces!It's a good idea to place these test calls before configuring the interfaces - that way, you know you've got a valid connection before beginning the configuration (and there's a lot of config to go along with ISDN!)To place a test call without using pings, use the isdn call interface command.R1#isdn call interface bri0 8358662R1#03:54:43: BR0 DDR: Attempting to dial 835866203:54:43: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up03:54:44: BR0:1 DDR: dialer protocol up03:54:45: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up03:54:49: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 8358662 R2To tear the test call down correctly, use isdn disconnect interface. IOS Help displays the options with this command.R1#isdn disconnect interface bri 0 ?all Disconnect the data call(s) on all b channelsb1 Disconnect the data call on b1 channelb2 Disconnect the data call on b2 channelR1#isdn disconnect interface bri 0 all03:58:36: BR0:1 DDR: disconnecting call03:58:36: BR0:2 DDR: disconnecting call03:58:36: %ISDN-6-DISCONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 disconnected from 8358662
R2, call lasted 20 seconds03:58:36: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to down03:58:36: BR0:1 DDR: disconnecting call03:58:37: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to downI say "correctly" because the one thing you don't want to do to end an ISDN call, test or otherwise, is just shut the interface. Telcos don't like it, and ISDN lab devices like it even less. Always let the d-channel do its work and tear the call down in an orderly fashion - don't just cut it off by shutting the interface down.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #isdn #bri #test #call #disconnect #ping #d #b #channel #pass #free #exam #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Frame Relay BECNs and unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Frame Relay BECNs and FECNs***

BECNs and FECNs aren't just important to know for your Cisco CCNA and CCNP certification exams - they're an important part of detecting congestion on a Frame Relay network and allowing the network to dynamically adjust its transmission rate when congestion is encountered.The Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN, pronounced "feckon") bit is set to zero by default, and will be set to 1 if congestion was experienced by the frame in the direction in which the frame was traveling. A DCE (frame relay switch) will set this bit, and a DTE (router) will receive it, and see that congestion was encountered along the frame's path.If network congestion exists in the opposite direction in which the frame was traveling, the Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN, pronounced "beckon") will be set to 1 by a DCE.If this is your first time working with BECNs and FECNs, you might wonder why the BECN even exists - after all, why send a "backwards" notification? The BECN is actually the most important part of this entire process, since it's the BECN bit that indicates to the sender that it needs to slow down!For example, frames sent from Kansas City to Green Bay encounter congestion in the FR cloud. A Frame Switch sets the FECN bit to 1. In order to alert KC that it's sending data too fast, GB will send return frames with the BECN bit set. When KC sees the BECN bit is set to 1, the KC router knows that the congestion occurred when frames were sent from KC to GB.Frame Relay BECN Adaptive Shaping allows a router to dynamically throttle back on its transmission rate if it receives frames from the remote host with the BECN bit set. In this case, KC sees that the traffic it's sending to GB is encountering congestion, because the traffic coming back from GB has the BECN bit set. If BECN Adaptive Shaping is running on KC, that router will adjust to this congestion by slowing its transmission rate. When the BECNs stop coming in from GB, KC will begin to send at a faster rate.BECN Adaptive Shaping is configured as follows:KC(config)#int s0KC(config-if)#frame-relay adaptive-shaping becnTo see how many frames are coming in and going out with the BECN and FECN bits set, run show frame pvc.R3#show frame pvc< some output removed for clarity >input pkts 306 output pkts 609 in bytes 45566out bytes 79364 dropped pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0out bcast pkts 568 out bcast bytes 75128pvc create time 01:26:27, last time pvc status changed 01:26:27Just watch the "in"s and "out"s of BECN, FECN, and DE in both the exam room and your production networks!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #certification #ccnp #exam #frame #relay #becn #fecn #de #congestion #bryant #advantage
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Frame Relay Encapsula unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Frame Relay Encapsulation Types***

When you're studying to pass the Cisco CCNA and CCNP certification exams, you quickly learn that there's always something else to learn. (You'll really pick up on this in your CCIE studies, trust me!) Today we'll take a look at an often-overlooked topic in Frame Relay, the encapsulation type. You don't exactly change this on a daily basis in production networks (not if you want to stay employed, anyway!), but it's an important exam topic that you must be familiar with.The DCE and DTE must agree on the LMI type, but there's another value that must be agreed upon by the two DTEs serving as the endpoints of the VC. The Frame encapsulation can be left at the default of Cisco (which is Cisco-proprietary), or it can be changed to the industry-standard IETF, as shown below. If a non-Cisco router is the remote endpoint, IETF encapsulation must be used. Note that the default of Cisco isn't listed as an option by IOS Help, so you better know that one by heart!R1(config)#int s0R1(config-if)#encap frame ?ietf Use RFC1490 / RFC2427 encapsulationR1(config-if)#encap frame ietfWhat if a physical interface is in use and some remote hosts require Cisco encapsulation and others require IETF? The encapsulation type can be configured on a per-PVC basis as well. One encap type can be used on the interface, and any map statements that require a different encap type can have that specified in the appropriate map statement. In the following example, all PVCs will use the default Cisco encapsulation type except for PVC 115. The frame map statement using that PVC has ietf specified.R1(config)#int s0 / 0R1(config-if)#encap frameR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.3 123 broadcastR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 122 ietf broadcastshow frame map shows us that the mapping to DLCI 123 is using Cisco encapsulation, and DLCI 122 is using IETF.R1#show frame mapSerial0 (up): ip 172.12.123.3 dlci 123(0x7B,0x1CB0), staticbroadcast, CISCO, status defined, activeSerial0 (up): ip 172.12.123.2 dlci 122(0x7B,0x1CB0), staticbroadcast, ietf, status defined, activeJust remember that Cisco is the default, and all PVCs will use Cisco unless you specify IETF in the frame map statement itself. You could also change the entire interface to use IETF for all mappings with the frame-relay encapsulation IETF command. For Cisco exams, as well as work on production networks, it's always a good idea to know more than one way to do something!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage

#ccna #ccnp #cisco #certification #frame #relay #ietf #pvc #router #serial #interface #exam #pass
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Same Command, Differe unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Same Command, Different Results***

As a CCNA or CCNP, one thing you've got to get used to is that change is constant. Cisco regularly issues new IOS versions, not to mention the many different kinds of hardware they produce! While it's always nice to have "the latest and the greatest" when it comes to routers, switches, firewalls, etc., we have to be prepared for the fact that not all our clients are going to have that latest and greatest!For instance, there are still quite a few Catalyst 5000 switches out there humming away, and if you're used to working on IOS-driven switches like the 2950, the same command can have dramatically different results.Let's say you're going to examine the spanning tree protocol (STP) setup of a new client. You're used to working with newer 2950 switches, and you've always run show span on those switches to display spanning-tree information. Then, you run show span on a Catalyst 5000 - and something like this shows:switch (enable) show spanDestination : Port 6 / 1Admin Source : Port 6 / 2Oper Source : Port 6 / 2Direction : transmit / receiveIncoming Packets: disabledLearning : enabledMulticast : enabledFilter : -Status : activeTotal local span sessions: 1What's going on here?The command show span on a 5000 will not show spanning tree stats - instead, what you're going to see are statistics relating to Switched Port ANalyzer (SPAN). Surprise!Consider an example where you're used to running show span on 5000 switches to see SPAN information. When you run that on a 2950, you know now what you're going to get - spanning tree information! On a 2950, you'll need to run show monitor session, followed by the SPAN session number.SW1#show monitor session 1Session 1---------Type : Local SessionSource Ports :Both : Fa0 / 1Destination Ports : Fa0 / 2Encapsulation : NativeIngress: DisabledAs a CCNA and CCNP, this is one of those things you just have to get used to. Commands are going to be different, sometimes radically so, between models. That's why you need to be adept with both IOS Help and Cisco's online documentation site. IOS Help is easy, but the online doc site take a little getting used to. Once you learn how to navigate that site, a world of Cisco knowledge is at your fingertips.Besides, when you sit for the CCIE lab exam, that will be the only friend you have! And a valuable friend it can be - you're just going to have to trust me on that one. :)Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, "How To Pass The CCNA" and "How To Pass The CCNP", visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #bsci #bcran #free #exam #tutorial #span #tree #protocol #router #switch #ios #5000
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Caller ID Screening A unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Caller ID Screening And Callback***

As a CCNA and / or CCNP candidate, you've got to be able to spot situations where Cisco router features can save your client money and time. For example, if a spoke router is calling a hub router and the toll charges at the spoke site are higher than that of the hub router, having the hub router hang up initially and then call the spoke router back can save the client money (and make you look good!)A popular method of doing this is using PPP callback, but as we all know, it's a good idea to know more than one way to do things in Cisco World! A lesser-known but still effective method of callback is Caller ID Screening & Callback. Before we look at the callback feature, though, we need to know what Caller ID Screening is in the first place!This feature is often referred to simply as "Caller ID", which can be a little misleading if you've never seen this service in operation before. To most of us, Caller ID is a phone service that displays the source phone number of an incoming call. Caller ID Screening has a different meaning, though. Caller ID Screening on a Cisco router is really another kind of password - it defines the phone numbers that are allowed to call the router.The list of acceptable source phone numbers is created with the isdn caller command. Luckily for us, this command allows the use of x to specify a wildcard number. The command isdn caller 555xxxx results in calls being accepted from any 7-digit phone number beginning with 555, and rejected in all other cases. We'll configure R2 to do just that and then send a ping from R1 to R2. To see the results of the Caller ID Screening, debug dialer will be run on R1 before sending the ping. I?ve edited this output, since the output you see here will be repeated fire times ? once for each ping packet.R2(config-if)#isdn caller 555xxxxR1#debug dialerDial on demand events debugging is onR1#ping 172.12.12.2Type escape sequence to abort.Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.12.12.2, timeout is 2 seconds:03:30:25: BR0 DDR: Dialing cause ip (s=172.12.12.1, d=172.12.12.2)03:30:25: BR0 DDR: Attempting to dial 8358662.Success rate is 0 percent (0 / 5)R1 doesn't give us any hints as to what the problem is, but we can see that the pings definitely aren't going through. On R2, show dialer displays the number of screened calls.R2#show dialerBRI0 - dialer type = ISDNDial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status8358661 1 0 00:03:16 successful7 incoming call(s) have been screened.0 incoming call(s) rejected for callback.The callback option mentioned in the last line shown above enables the router to reject a phone call, and then call that router back seconds later.R2 will now be configured to initially hang up on R1, and then call R1 back.R2(config-if)#isdn caller 8358661 callbackR1 will now ping R2. The pings aren't returned, but seconds later R2 calls R1 back.R1#ping 172.12.12.2Success rate is 0 percent (0 / 5)R1#03:48:12: BRI0: wait for isdn carrier timeout, call id=0x8023R1#03:48:18: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to upR1#03:48:18: BR0:1 DDR: dialer protocol upR1#03:48:19: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to upR1#03:48:24: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 8358662 R2show dialer on R2 shows the reason for the call to R1 is a callback return call.R2#show dialerBRI0 - dialer type = ISDNDial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status8358661 3 0 00:00:48 successful7 incoming call(s) have been screened.10 incoming call(s) rejected for callback.BRI0:1 - dialer type = ISDNIdle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs)Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs)Dialer state is data link layer upDial reason: Callback return callTime until disconnect 71 secsConnected to 8358661 (R1)The drawback to Caller ID Callback is that not all telco switches support it, so if you have the choice between this and PPP Callback, you're probably better off with PPP Callback. However, it's always a good idea to know more than one way to get things done with Cisco!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bcran #pass #free #caller #id #callback #ppp #isdn #cisco #certification #exam #ccie #ccna
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Cabling Your Home Lab* unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Cabling Your Home Lab***

More CCNA and CCNP candidates than ever before are putting together their own home labs, and there's no better way to learn about Cisco technologies than working with the real thing. Getting the routers and switches is just part of putting together a great CCNA / CCNP home lab, though. You've got to get the right cables to connect the devices, and this is an important part of your education as well. After all, without the right cables, client networks are going to have a hard time working!For your Cisco home lab, one important cable is the DTE / DCE cable. These cables have two major uses in a home lab. To practice directly connecting Cisco routers via Serial interfaces (an important CCNA skill), you'll need to connect them with a DTE / DCE cable. Second, if you plan on having a Cisco router act as a frame relay switch in your lab, you'll need multiple DTE / DCE cables to do so. (Visit my website's Home Lab Help section for a sample Frame Relay switch configuration.)If you have multiple switches in your lab, that's great, because you'll be able to get a lot of spanning tree protocol (STP) work in as well as creating Etherchannels. To connect your switches, you'll need crossover cables.You'll need some straight-through cables as well to connect your routers to the switches.Finally, if you're lucky enough to have an access server as part of your lab, you'll need an octal cable to connect your AS to the other routers and switches in your lab. The octal cable has one large connector on one end and eight numbered RJ-45 connectors on the other end. The large connector should be attached to the async port on your AS, and the numbered RJ-45 connectors will be connected to the console ports on your other routers and switches.Choosing and connecting the right cables for your Cisco CCNA / CCNP home lab is a great learning experience, and it's also an important part of your Cisco education. After all, all great networks and home labs all begin at Layer One of the OSI model!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #home #lab #cable #router #switch #crossover #dte #dce #serial #direct #pass #free #exam
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Lab: Frame Relay Subint unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Lab: Frame Relay Subinterfaces And Split Horizon***

Earning your Cisco CCNA and CCNP is a tough proposition, and part of that is the fact that you quickly learn that there?s usually more than one way to do things with Cisco routers ? and while that?s generally a good thing, you better know the ins and outs of all options when it comes to test day and working on production networks. Working with Frame Relay subinterfaces and split horizon is just one such situation.One reason for the use of subinterfaces is to circumvent the rule of split horizon. You recall from your CCNA studies that split horizon dictates that a route cannot be advertised out the same interface upon which it was learned in the first place. In the following example, R1 is the hub and R2 and R3 are the spokes. All three routers are using their physical interfaces for frame relay connectivity, and they are also running RIPv2 172.12.123.0 / 24. Each router is also advertising a loopback interface, using the router number for each octet.R1(config)#int s0R1(config-if)#ip address 172.12.123.1 255.255.255.0R1(config-if)#no frame inverseR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 122 broadcastR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.3 123 broadcastR1(config-if)#no shutR2(config)#int s0R2(config-if)#encap frameR2(config-if)#no frame inverR2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.1 221 broadcastR2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.3 221 broadcastR2(config-if)#ip address 172.12.123.2 255.255.255.0R3(config)#int s0R3(config-if)#encap frameR3(config-if)#no frame inverR3(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.1 321 broadcastR3(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 321 broadcastR3(config-if)#ip address 172.12.123.3 255.255.255.0R1#show ip route rip2.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 2.2.2.2 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.2, 00:00:20, Serial03.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 3.3.3.3 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:22, Serial0R2#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:06, Serial0R3#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:04, Serial0The hub router R1 has a route to both loopbacks, but neither spoke has a route to the other spoke's loopback. That's because split horizon prevents R1 from advertising a network via Serial0 if the route was learned on Serial0 to begin with.We've got two options here, one of which is to disable spilt horizon on the interface. While doing so will have the desired effect in our little network, disabling split horizon is not a good idea and should be avoided whenever possible. We?re not going to do it in this lab, but here is the syntax to do so:R1(config)#interface serial0R1(config-if)#no ip split-horizonA better solution is to configure subinterfaces on R1. The IP addressing will have to be revisited, but that's no problem here. R1 and R2 will use 172.12.123.0 / 24 to communicate, while R1 and R3 will use 172.12.13.0 / 24. R3's serial0 interface will need to be renumbered, so let's look at all three router configurations:R1(config)#interface serial0R1(config-if)#encap frameR1(config-if)#no frame inverse-arpR1(config-if)#no ip addressR1(config-if)#interface serial0.12 multipointR1(config-subif)#ip address 172.12.123.1 255.255.255.0R1(config-subif)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 122 broadcastR1(config-subif)#interface serial0.31 point-to-pointR1(config-subif)#ip address 172.12.13.1 255.255.255.0R1(config-subif)#frame interface-dlci 123R2(config)#int s0R2(config-if)#ip address 172.12.123.2 255.255.255.0R2(config-if)#encap frameR2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.13.3 221 broadcastR2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.1 221 broadcastR3(config)#int s0R3(config-if)#ip address 172.12.13.3 255.255.255.0R3(config-if)#encap frameR3(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.13.1 321 broadcastR3(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 321 broadcastA frame map statement always names the REMOTE IP address and the LOCAL DLCI. Don't forget the broadcast option!Show frame map shows us that all the static mappings on R1 are up and running. Note the "static" output, which indicates these mappings are a result of using the frame map command. Pings are not shown, but all three routers can ping each other at this point.R1#show frame mapSerial0 (up): ip 172.12.123.2 dlci 122(0x7A,0x1CA0), static,broadcast, CISCO, status defined, activeSerial0 (up): ip 172.12.13.3 dlci 123(0x7B,0x1CB0), static,broadcast, CISCO, status defined, activeAfter the 172.12.13.0 / 24 network is added to R1 and R3?s RIP configuration, R2 and R3 now have each other's loopback network in their RIP routing tables.R2#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:20, Serial03.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 3.3.3.3 [120 / 1] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:22, Serial0R3#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 172.12.13.1, 00:00:20, Serial02.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 2.2.2.2 [120 / 1] via 172.12.13.1, 00:00:22, Serial0While turning split horizon off is one way to achieve total IP connectivity, doing so can have other unintended results. The use of subinterfaces is a more effective way of allowing the spokes to see the hub's loopback network.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #exam #certification #frame #relay #subinterface #split #horizon #rip #network #loopback
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Troubleshooting Direc unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Troubleshooting Direct Serial Connections***

Connecting Cisco routers directly via their Serial interfaces works really well once you get it running - and getting such a connection up and running is easy enough. You can use show controller serial x to find out which endpoint is acting as the DCE, and it's the DCE that must be configured with the clockrate command.R3#show controller serial 1HD unit 1, idb = 0x11B4DC, driver structure at 0x121868buffer size 1524 HD unit 1, V.35 DCE cableR3(config)#int serial1R3(config-if)#ip address 172.12.13.3 255.255.255.0R3(config-if)#clockrate 56000R3(config-if)#no shutFailure to configure the clockrate has some interesting effects regarding the physical and logical state of the interfaces. Let's remove the clockrate from R3 and see what happens.R3(config)#int s1R3(config-if)#no clockrate 56000R3(config-if)#18:02:19: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial1, changed state to downThe line protocol doesn't drop immediately, but it does drop. Let's run show interface serial1 to compare the physical and logical interface states.R3#show int serial1Serial1 is up, line protocol is downPhysically, the interface is fine, so the physical interface is up. It's only the logical part of the interface - the line protocol - that is down. It's the same situation on R1.R1#show inter serial1Serial1 is up, line protocol is downWhile a router misconfiguration is the most likely cause of a serial connection issue, that's not the only reason for clocking issues. Cisco's website documentation mentions CSU / DSU misconfiguration, out-of-spec cables, bad patch panel connections, and connecting too many cables together as other reasons for clocking problems. Still, the number one reason for clocking problems in my experience is simply forgetting to configure the clockrate command!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #cit #dte #dce #serial #connection #cable #show #interface #serial #line #protocol #up
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco / Microsoft Computer Certification: Be Ready For Your unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco / Microsoft Computer Certification: Be Ready For Your Opportunity***

I was reading The Big Moo: Stop Trying To Be Perfect and Start Being Remarkable this morning, and I?d recommend a copy of this to anyone who wants to improve their career and their future. And that?s all of us, right?There was one particular line that really stood out to me: Betting on change is always the safest bet available. That describes life perfectly, but it also describes a career in Information Technology perfectly as well. There is no field in the world that has the constant and never-ending changes that IT does. And every single one of us can look at this as a massive opportunity for personal and professional growth.Is that how you?re looking at it? I remember when I passed my first certification exam, the Novell CAN, back in 1997. Man, I thought I knew it all then. J But I quickly learned that you?ve got to keep learning in IT. I also learned that if you?re willing to put in the work and make the sacrifices, there?s no other field with the limitless potential for growth and excellence.Like everyone else, my career has had its ups and downs, but I always kept learning and growing. Today, I?ve got my dream job, working with students and customers just like you ? to help you create your own future.The next 18 months are filled with endless possibilities, particularly with the rapid growth of VoIP and Microsoft Vista on the horizon. There will be those who rationalize their inertia, saying ?I?ll never have to support those, so I don?t need to learn them."There will also be those who see VoIP and Vista as enormous opportunities to learn and advance in their careers and their lives. These people will get started today, learning the fundamentals of Cisco and advancing their networking knowledge in order to be ready for opportunities as they come along.You can?t start studying and learning when the opportunity arrives ? you?ve got to be ready when opportunity knocks. If you?ve been putting off studying for a Cisco or other computer certification ? and I know the summer is a really good time for putting off studying ? get back on track today.Because you never know what opportunities are going to come along ? but you do know that when they do, you?ve got to be ready to take advantage. After all, opportunity really does knock only once!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! And coming in 2007 -- Microsoft Vista certification from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #ccnp #microsoft #computer #certification #mcse #vista #nt #pass #exam #novell #bryant
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***CCNP Certification / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Server Load Balan unimarter UniMarter
***CCNP Certification / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Server Load Balancing (SLB)***

When you're working on your BCMSN exam on your way to CCNP certification, you'll read at length about how Cisco routers and multilayer switches can work to provide router redundancy - but there's another helpful service, Server Load Balancing, that does the same for servers. While HSRP, VRRP, and CLBP all represent multiple physical routers to hosts as a single virtual router, SLB represents multiple physical servers to hosts as a single virtual server.In the following example, three physical servers have been placed into the SRB group ServFarm. They're represented to the hosts as the virtual server 210.1.1.14.The hosts will seek to communicate with the server at 210.1.1.14, not knowing that they're actually communicating with the routers in ServFarm. This allows quick cutover if one of the physical servers goes down, and also serves to hide the actual IP addresses of the servers in ServFarm.The basic operations of SLB involves creating the server farm, followed by creating the virtual server. We'll first add 210.1.1.11 to the server farm:MLS(config)# ip slb serverfarm ServFarmMLS(config-slb-sfarm)# real 210.1.1.11MLS(config-slb-real)# inserviceThe first command creates the server farm, with the real command specifying the IP address of the real server. The inservice command is required by SLB to consider the server as ready to handle the server farm's workload. The real and inservice commands should be repeated for each server in the server farm.To create the virtual server:MLS(config)# ip slb vserver VIRTUAL_SERVERMLS(config-slb-vserver)# serverfarm ServFarmMLS(config-slb-vserver)# virtual 210.1.1.14MLS(config-slb-vserver)# inserviceFrom the top down, the vserver was named VIRTUAL_SERVER, which represents the server farm ServFarm. The virtual server is assigned the IP address 210.1.1.14, and connections are allowed once the inservice command is applied.You may also want to control which of your network hosts can connect to the virtual server. If hosts or subnets are named with the client command, those will be the only clients that can connect to the virtual server. Note that this command uses wildcard masks. The following configuration would allow only the hosts on the subnet 210.1.1.0 / 24 to connect to the virtual server.MLS(config-slb-vserver)# client 210.1.1.0 0.0.0.255SLB is the server end's answer to HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP - but you still need to know it to become a CCNP! Knowing redundancy strategies and protocols is vital in today's networks, so make sure you're comfortable with SLB before taking on the exam.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNP certification with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #study #guide #server #load #balancing #slb #vrrp #hsrp #glbp #redundancy
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP / BCMSN Exam Review: Trunking And Trunk unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP / BCMSN Exam Review: Trunking And Trunking Protocols***

To earn your CCNA or CCNP certification, you've got to understand the basics of trunking. This isn't just a CCNA topic - you must have an advanced understanding of trunking and etherchannels to pass the BCMSN exam and earn your CCNP as well. Before we address those advanced topics, though, you need to master the fundamentals!A trunk allows inter-VLAN traffic to flow between directly connected switches. By default, a trunk port is a member of all VLANs, so traffic for any and all VLANs can travel across this trunk. That includes broadcast traffic!The default mode of a switch port does differ between models, so always check your documentation. On Cisco 2950 switches, every single port is in dynamic desirable mode by default, meaning that every port is actively attempting to trunk. On these switches, the only action needed from us is to physically connect them with a crossover cable. In just a few seconds, the port light turns green and the trunk is up and running. The command show interface trunk will verify trunking.How does the receiving switch know what VLAN the frame belongs to? The frames are tagged by the transmitting switch with a VLAN ID, reflecting the number of the VLAN whose member ports should receive this frame. When the frame arrives at the remote switch, that switch will examine this ID and then forward the frame appropriately.There are two major trunking protocols you must understand and compare successfully, those being ISL and IEEE 802.1Q. Let's take a look at the details of ISL first.ISL is a Cisco-proprietary trunking protocol, making it unsuitable for a multivendor environment. That's one drawback, but there are others. ISL will place both a header and trailer onto the frame, encapsulating it. This increases the overhead on the trunk line.You know that the default VLAN is also known as the "native VLAN", and another drawback to ISL is that ISL does not use the concept of the native VLAN. This means that every single frame transmitted across the trunk will be encapsulated.The 26-byte header that is added to the frame by ISL contains the VLAN ID; the 4-byte trailer contains a Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) value. The CRC is a frame validity scheme that checks the frame's integrity.In turn, this encapsulation leads to another potential issue. ISL encapsulation adds 30 bytes total to the size of the frame, potentially making them too large for the switch to handle. (The maximum size for an Ethernet frame is 1518 bytes.)IEEE 802.1q differs substantially from ISL. In contrast to ISL, dot1q does not encapsulate frames. A 4-byte header is added to the frame, resulting in less overhead than ISL. If the frame is destined for hosts residing in the native VLAN, that header isn't added. Since the header is only 4 bytes in size, and isn't even placed on every frame, using dot1q lessens the chance of oversized frames. When the remote port receives an untagged frame, the switch knows that these untagged frames are destined for the native VLAN.Knowing the details is the difference between passing and failing your CCNA and CCNP exams. Keep studying, get some hands-on practice, and you?re on your way to Cisco certification success!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #ccnp #bcmsn #trunking #vlan #native #isl #ieee #dot1q #encapsulation #header #exam
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Configuring PortFast And unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Configuring PortFast And BPDU Guard***

In your CCNA studies, you learned about PortFast and the trouble it can cause if configured on the wrong port! Suitable only for switch ports connected directly to a single host, PortFast allows a port running STP to go directly from blocking to forwarding mode.A Cisco router will give you a warning when you configure PortFast:SW1(config)#int fast 0 / 5SW1(config-if)#spanning-tree portfast%Warning: portfast should only be enabled on ports connected to a
single host. Connecting hubs, concentrators, switches, bridges, etc...
to this interface when portfast is enabled, can cause temporary
bridging loops. Use with CAUTION%Portfast has been configured on FastEthernet0 / 5 but will onlyhave effect when the interface is in a non-trunking mode.SW1(config-if)#Not only will the switch warn you about the proper usage of PortFast, but you must put the port into access mode before PortFast will take effect.Now, you'd think that would be enough of a warning, right? But there is a chance - just a chance - that someone is going to manage to connect a switch to a port running Portfast. That could lead to two major problems, the first being the formation of a switching loop. Remember, the reason we have listening and learning modes is to help prevent switching loops. The next problem is that there could be a new root bridge elected - and it could be a switch that isn't even in your network!BPDU Guard protects against this disastrous possibility. If any BPDU comes in on a port that's running BPDU Guard, the port will be shut down and placed into error disabled state, shown on the switch as err-disabled. A port placed in err-disabled state must be reopened manually.BPDU Guard is off on all ports by default, and is enabled as shown here:SW1(config)#int fast 0 / 5SW1(config-if)#spanning-tree bpduguard enableIt's a good idea to enable BPDU Guard on any port you're running PortFast on. There's no cost in overhead, and it does prevent the possibility of a switch sending BPDUs into a port configured with PortFast - not to mention the possibility of a switch not under your control becoming a root switch to your network!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #bpdu #guard #portfast #port #fast #switch #err -disabled #exam #pass
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Filtering BGP Updates With unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Filtering BGP Updates With Prefix Lists***

A major part of your BSCI and CCNP exam success is mastering BGP, and that includes filtering BGP routing updates. In this tutorial, we'll take a look at how to filter BGP updates with prefix lists.R4 is advertising three networks via BGP. The downstream router R3 sees these routes and places them into its BGP table as shown below. R3 has two downstream BGP peers, R1 and R2, and is advertising itself as the next-hop IP address for all BGP routes sent to those two routers.R4(config)#router bgp 4R4(config-router)#network 21.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0R4(config-router)#network 22.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0R4(config-router)#network 23.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0R3#show ip bgpBGP table version is 4, local router ID is 3.3.3.3Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*> 21.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 I*> 22.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 I*> 23.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 IR3(config)#router bgp 123R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 next-hop-selfR3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.2 next-hop-selfIn turn, both R1 and R2 have these three routes in their respective BGP tables.R2#show ip bgpBGP table version is 4, local router ID is 2.2.2.2Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i22.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IR1#show ip bgpBGP table version is 4, local router ID is 19.1.1.1Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i22.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I*>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IIf we wanted R3 to receive all three of these routes from R4 but not advertise all of them to R2 and R1, we've got a couple of options on how to block these routes. Cisco's recommendation is the use of prefix-lists, and once you get used to the syntax (which you should do before taking and passing the BSCI), you'll see they are actually easier to use than access-lists.In this case, we're going to configure R3 to send only the route to 21.0.0.0 to R1 and 23.0.0.0 to R2. However, we do want these two routers to get any future routes that R4 advertises into BGP.Since R1 and R2 will learn about these routes from an iBGP neighbor, they will not advertise the routes to each other.On R3, we'll write a prefix-list that denies 22.0.0.0 / 8 and 23.0.0.0 / 8, but permits all other routes. After applying the prefix list as shown, R1 sees only the 21.0.0.0 / 8 route.R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 deny 23.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32R3(config)#router bgp 123R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 prefix-list FILTER_R1 outR3#clear ip bgp * softR1#show ip bgpBGP table version is 6, local router ID is 19.1.1.1Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?
InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IThe paths to 22.0.0.0 / 8 and 23.0.0.0 / 8 have been successfully filtered.We'll do the same for R2, except the route not being expressly blocked is 23.0.0.0 / 8. The line "ip prefix-list permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32" is the prefix list equivalent of a "permit any" statement in an ACL.R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 deny 21.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32R3(config)#router bgp 123R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.2 prefix-list FILTER_R2 outR3#clear ip bgp * softR2#show ip bgpBGP table version is 6, local router ID is 2.2.2.2Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i ?InternalOrigin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? ? incompleteNetwork Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path*>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 IThe paths to 21.0.0.0 / 8 and 22.0.0.0 / 8 have been successfully filtered.To see the prefix lists configured on a route as well as the order of the statements in each list, run show ip prefix-list.R3#show ip prefix-listip prefix-list FILTER_R1: 3 entriesseq 5 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8seq 10 deny 23.0.0.0 / 8seq 15 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32ip prefix-list FILTER_R2: 3 entriesseq 5 deny 21.0.0.0 / 8seq 10 deny 22.0.0.0 / 8seq 15 permit 0.0.0.0 / 0 le 32Get some hands-on practice with prefix lists and you'll quickly master them. Prefix lists are an important part of working with BGP in the exam room and production networks, so it's vital that you are comfortable working with them.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bsci #exam #free #tutorial #bgp #filter #prefix #list #update #routing #pass #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: BPDU Skew Detection And C unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: BPDU Skew Detection And Cisco Switches***

You may look at that feature's name and think, "What is a BPDU Skew, and why do I want to detect it?" What we're actually attempting to detect are BPDUs that aren't being relayed as quickly as they should be.After the root bridge election, the root bridge transmits BPDUs, and the non-root switches relay that BPDU down the STP tree. This should happen quickly all around, since the root bridge will be sending a BPDU every two seconds by default ("hello time"), and the switches should relay the BDPUs fast enough so every switch is seeing a BPDU every two seconds.That's in a perfect world, though, and there are plenty of imperfect networks out there! You may have a busy switch that can't spare the CPU to relay the BDPU quickly, or a BPDU may just simply be lost in transmission. That two-second hello time value doesn't give the switches much leeway, but we don't want the STP topology recalculated unnecessarily either.BDPU Skew Detection is strictly a notification feature. Skew Detection will not take action to prevent STP recalculation when BDPUs are not being relayed quickly enough by the switches, but it will send a syslog message informing the network administrator of the problem. The amount of time between when the BDPU should have arrived and when it did arrive is referred to as "skew time" or "BPDU latency".A busy CPU could quickly find itself overwhelmed if it had to send a syslog message for every BPDU delivery that's skewed. The syslog messages will be limited to one every 60 seconds, unless the "skew time" is at a critical level. In that case, the syslog message will be sent immediately with no one-per-minute limit.And what is "critical", according to BDPU Skew Detection? Any value greater than 1 / 2 of the MaxAge value, making the critical skew time level 10 seconds or greater.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bcmsn #bpdu #skew #detection #exam #pass #certification #switch #cisco #stp #recalculation
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: ISIS Router Types*** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: ISIS Router Types***

To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP, you've got to know ISIS inside and out. There are many similarities between ISIS and OSPF, but one major difference is that ISIS has three different types of routers - Level 1 (L1), Level 2 (L2), and L1 / L2.L1 routers are contained in a single area, and are connected to other areas by an L1 / L2 router. The L1 uses the L1 / L2 router as a default gateway to reach destinations contained in other areas, much like an OSPF stub router uses the ABR as a default gateway.L1 routers have no specific routing table entries regarding any destination outside their own area; they will use an L1 / L2 router as a default gateway to reach any external networks. ISIS L1 routers in the same area must synchronize their databases with each other.Just as we have L1 routers, we also have L2 routers. Anytime we're routing between areas (inter-area routing), an L2 or L1 / L2 router must be involved. All L2 routers will have synchronized databases as well.Both L1 and L2 routers send out their own hellos. As with OSPF, hello packets allow ISIS routers to form adjacencies. The key difference here is that L1 routers send out L1 hellos, and L2 routers send out L2 hellos. If you have an L1 router and an L2 router on the same link, they will not form an adjacency.An ISIS router can act as an L1 and an L2 router at the same time; these routers are L1 / L2 routers. An L1 / L2 router can have neighbors in separate ISIS areas. The L1 / L2 router will have two separate databases, though - one for L1 routes and another for L2 routes. L1 / L2 is the default setting for Cisco routers running ISIS. The L1 / L2 router is the router that makes it possible for an L1 router to send data to another area.In the next part of my ISIS tutorial, we'll take a more detailed look at those ISIS hellos!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #bsci #isis #router #type #L1 #L2 #L1 / L2 #adjacency #hello #pass #exam #certification
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
ponad 3 tygodnie temu
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Uplinkfast* unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BCMSN Exam Tutorial: Uplinkfast***

You remember from your CCNA studies that when a port goes through the transition from blocking to forwarding, you're looking at a 50-second delay before that port can actually begin forwarding frames. Configuring a port with PortFast is one way to get around that, but again, you can only use it when a single host device is found off the port. What if the device connected to a port is another switch?A switch can be connected to two other switches, giving that local switch a redundant path to the root bridge, and that's great - we always want a backup plan! However, STP will only allow one path to be available, but if the available path to the root switch goes down, there will be a 50-second delay due to the STP timers MaxAge and ForwardDelay before the currently blocked path will be available.The delay is there to prevent switching loops, and we can't use PortFast to shorten the delay since these are switches, not host devices. What we can use is Uplinkfast.The ports that SW3 could potentially use to reach the root switch are collectively referred to as an uplink group. The uplink group includes the ports in forwarding and blocking mode. If the forwarding port in the uplink group sees that the link has gone down, another port in the uplink group will be transitioned from blocking to forwarding immediately. Uplinkfast is pretty much PortFast for wiring closets. (Cisco recommends that Uplinkfast not be used on switches in the distribution and core layers.)Some additional details regarding Uplinkfast:The actual transition from blocking to forwarding mode takes about three seconds.Uplinkfast cannot be configured on a root switch.Uplinkfast is configured globally. You can't run Uplinkfast on some ports or on a per-VLAN basis - it's all or nothing.The original root port will become the root port again when it detects that its link to the root switch has come back up. This does not take place immediately. The switch uses the following formula to determine how long to wait before transitioning back to the forwarding state:( 2 x FwdDelay) + 5 secondsUplinkfast will take immediate action to ensure that the switch upon which it is configured cannot become the root switch. First, the switch priority will be set to 49,152, which means that if all other switches are still at their default priority, they'd all have to go down before this switch can possibly become the root switch. Additionally, the STP Port Cost will be increased by 3000, making it highly unlikely that this switch will be used to reach the root switch by any downstream switches.And you just know there's got to be at least one option with this command, right? Let's run IOS Help and see.SW2(config)#spanning-tree uplinkfast ?max-update-rate Rate at which station address updates are sentWhen there is a direct link failure, dummy multicast frames are sent to the MAC destination 0100.0ccd.cdcd. The max-update-rate value determines how many of these frames will be sent in a 100-millisecond time period.Mastering the details of UplinkFast, BackboneFast, BPDU Guard, and Loop Guard are vital to your success on the CCNP exams, and one or more of these features are in use on almost every network in the world. Learn these features for success in both the exam room and the real world!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #exam #pass #bcmsn #uplinkfast #switch #root #bridge #port #failure #ccie
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