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@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Using OSPF's
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Using OSPF's "Summary-Address" Command***

BSCI exam success, not to mention earning your CCNP, can come down to your OSPF route summarization skills. There are a few different commands and situations you need to be ready for, and one of these situations is the proper use of the "summary-address" command.The summary-address command should be used on an ASBR in order to summarize routes that are being injected into the OSPF domain via redistribution. In the following example, four routes are being redistributed into OSPF on R1, making R1 an ASBR.interface Loopback16ip address 16.16.16.16 255.0.0.0!interface Loopback17ip address 17.17.17.17 255.0.0.0!interface Loopback18ip address 18.18.18.18 255.0.0.0!interface Loopback19ip address 19.19.19.19 255.0.0.0R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#redistribute connected subnetsThese four routes are seen on downstream router R2 as External Type-2, the default for routes redistributed into OSPF.R2#show ip route ospfO E2 17.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial0O E2 16.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial0O E2 19.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial0O E2 18.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial0To summarize networks learned by redistribution, use the OSPF command summary-address. You can probably do this summarization in your head, but do so before continuing with the lab.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#summary-address 16.0.0.0 252.0.0.0Look at the change in R2's OSPF table.R2#show ip route ospfO E2 16.0.0.0 / 6 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:05, Serial0The external routes have been successfully summarized. Note that the summary route is still marked as an E2 route.There's an interesting route installed into R1's OSPF table as well.R1#show ip route ospfO 16.0.0.0 / 6 is a summary, 00:01:51, Null0When you configure summary routes in OSPF, a route to null0 will be installed into the OSPF routing table. This helps to prevent routing loops. Any packets destined for the routes that have been summarized will have a longer match in the routing table....C 17.0.0.0 / 8 is directly connected, Loopback17C 16.0.0.0 / 8 is directly connected, Loopback16C 19.0.0.0 / 8 is directly connected, Loopback19C 18.0.0.0 / 8 is directly connected, Loopback18O 16.0.0.0 / 6 is a summary, 00:03:10, Null0O 12.0.0.0 / 6 is a summary, 00:07:53, Null0.. and packets that do not match one of the summarized routes but do match the summary route will be dropped.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials! Pass the BSCI exam with Chris Bryant!

#ospf #summary #address #command #route #summarization #summarize #bsci #exam #pass #free #tutorial
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***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: The OSPF RID*** O unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: The OSPF RID***

OSPF is a major topic on your CCNA exam, as well it should be. OSPF is a widely-used WAN protocol, and you need to learn the fundamentals before moving on to more complicated configurations. One such detail is the OSPF Router ID, or RID.The RID is the dotted decimal value by which other OSPF routers will identify a given OSPF router. There are some interesting defaults for this value, and a command you should know to hardcode the RID. You had also better know what has to happen for this command to take effect, so let's take a more detailed look at the OSPF RID.In this example, R1 has an adjacency with R2 and R3 over the 172.12.123.0 / 24 frame network. R1 is the hub, with R2 and R3 as the spokes. No other interfaces are OSPF-enabled on any of the routers. Running show ip ospf neighbor on R1, we see some unusual values under "Neighbor ID", which is another name for the OSPF RID.R1#show ip ospf neighborNeighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface3.3.3.3 0 FULL / DROTHER 00:01:57 172.12.123.3 Serial02.2.2.2 0 FULL / DROTHER 00:01:57 172.12.123.2 Serial0Notice the Neighbor ID of each remote address is the loopback address. How can that be if they?re not OSPF-enabled?When determining the Router ID (RID) of an OSPF-enabled router, OSPF will always use the numerically highest IP address on the router?s loopback interfaces, regardless of whether that loopback is OSPF-enabled.What if there is no loopback? OSPF will then use the numerically highest IP address of the physical interfaces, regardless of whether that interface is OSPF-enabled.BOTTOM LINE: An interface does not have to be running OSPF to have its IP address used as the OSPF RID.The OSPF RID can be changed, but it requires a restart or to reinitialize the OSPF routing process. Use the router-id command to change the default RID of each router as shown, and clear the OSPF process to do so.R1#conf tEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL / Z.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#router-id 11.11.11.11Reload or use "clear ip ospf process" command, for this to take effectR1#clear ip ospf processReset ALL OSPF processes? [no]: yes1d05h: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 3.3.3.3 on Serial0 from 2WAY to
DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached1d05h: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 2.2.2.2 on Serial0 from 2WAY to
DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detachedAfter entering the router-id command, the router console informed you that you have to reload the router or reset the OSPF processes for this to take effect. You enter the clear ip ospf process command to do this. Notice that when you?re asked if you really want to do this, the prompt is ?no?? That?s because all the OSPF adjacencies on this router will be lost and will have to begin the process again. That?s OK on a practice rack, not good in a production network. Don?t use that one at work.The OSPF RID is not a complicated concept, but the fact that an interface doesn't have to be OSPF-enabled in order to have its IP address act as the RID takes some getting used to. And remember - when the router or switch asks you a question and the prompted answer is "no", take one step back and make sure you really want to do what you're about to do!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide from The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccna #exam #certification #ospf #rid #router #id #protocol #router #clear #ip #process #ccnp
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: The Passive Interface Comm unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: The Passive Interface Command And OSPF***

To pass the BSCI exam and become a CCNP, you have to be aware of the proper use of passive interfaces. You learned about passive interfaces in your CCNA studies, but here we?ll review the basic concept and clear up one misconception regarding passive interfaces and OSPF.Configuring an interface as passive will still allow the interface to receive routing updates, but the interface will no longer transmit them. While the command itself would make you think this command will be applied at the interface level, that is not the case. Below, we?ll configure ethernet0 as a RIP passive interface.R1(config)#router ripR1(config-router)#passive-interface ethernet0Ethernet0 will no longer send RIP routing updates, but will accept them.The passive interface concept is clear enough with RIP, IGRP, and EIGRP ? all protocols that send routing update packets. But OSPF doesn?t send routing update packets ? OSPF sends link state advertisements. It?s the inability of the passive interface command to stop LSAs that lead many to think that passive interfaces cannot be used with OSPF.Even though OSPF does not sent "routing updates" in the form that RIP, IGRP, and EIGRP do, you can still configure an OSPF-enabled interface as passive in order to prevent OSPF traffic from exiting or entering that interface. No OSPF adjacency can be formed if one of the interfaces involved is a passive interface, and if you configure an OSPF-enabled interface as passive where an adjacency already exists, the adjacency will drop almost immediately.Let's see that in action. R1 and R2 have an existing OSPF adjacency over their Ethernet interfaces. In an effort to reduce routing traffic, R1's e0 interface is configured as passive. The adjacency drops right away.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#passive-interface ethernet018:31:11: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0 from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detachedKnowing how to use the passive interface command is a vital part of being a CCNP, and of being a master networker. Good luck to you in both of these pursuits!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #exam #bsci #pass #free #tutorial #passive #interface #ospf #eigrp #igrp #rip #ccna
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: OSPF Route Redistribution unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: OSPF Route Redistribution Review***

OSPF route redistribution is an important topic on the BSCI exam, and it's a topic full of details and defaults that you need to know for the exam room and the job. To help you pass the BSCI exam, here's a quick review of some of the OSPF route redistribution basics.To see if a router is an ABR or ASBR, run show ip ospf. This also displays any routes being redistributed into OSPF on this router.R1#show ip ospfRouting Process "ospf 1" with ID 1.1.1.1Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routesSupports opaque LSAIt is an area border and autonomous system boundary routerRedistributing External Routes from,connected, includes subnets in redistributionrip, includes subnets in redistributionWhen redistributing RIP into OSPF, the ?subnets" option is needed to include subnets in redistribution. When redistributing OSPF into RIP, a seed metric must be specified. (OSPF gives redistributed routes a default metric of 20 ? this can be changed, but a seed metric does not have to be set.)R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#redistribute connected% Only classful networks will be redistributedR1(config-router)#redistribute connected subnetsR1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnetsR1(config-router)#router ripR1(config-router)#redistribute connected metric 1R1(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 1By default, routes redistributed into OSPF are marked as E2 routes. The metric for these routes reflects only the cost of the path from the ASBR to the destination network and does not include the cost of the path from the local router to the ASBR. By contrast, E1 routes include the cost of the entire path from the local router to the destination network.O E2 5.1.1.1 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet06.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E2 6.1.1.1 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet0172.12.0.0 / 16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masksO E2 172.12.21.0 / 30 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:32, Ethernet0O E2 7.1.1.1 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet015.0.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E2 15.1.1.0 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:32, Ethernet0To redistribute routes into OSPF and mark them as E1 upon redistribution, use the metric-type option with the redistribution command.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets metric-type ?1 Set OSPF External Type 1 metrics2 Set OSPF External Type 2 metricsR1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets metric-type 1Look at the same two routes in R4's routing table, which are now displayed as E1 routes:O E1 5.1.1.1 [110 / 94] via 172.34.34.3, 00:04:13, Ethernet06.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E1 6.1.1.1 [110 / 94] via 172.34.34.3, 00:04:14, Ethernet0BSCI exam success and earning your CCNP certification depends on knowing the details, and there are plenty of details involved in OSPF route redistribution! Keep studying, practice different scenarios in your CCNA / CCNP home lab or rack rental, and you'll master these details and pass the exam!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.You can also join his RSS feed and visit his blog, which is updated several times daily with new Cisco certification articles, free tutorials, and daily CCNA / CCNP exam questions! Details are on the website.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #exam #bsci #ospf #route #redistribution #subnet #e2 #e1 #external #route
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Configuring And Troubleshoo unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Configuring And Troubleshooting OSPF Virtual Links***

Knowing when and how to create an OSPF virtual link is an essential skill for BSCI and CCNP exam success, not to mention how important it can be on your job! As a CCNA and CCNP candidate, you know the theory of virtual links, so let's take a look at how to configure a virtual link, as well as some real-world tips that many CCNA and CCNP study guides leave out!In this configuration, no router with an interface in Area 4 has a physical interface in Area 0. This means a logical connection to Area 0, a virtual link, must be built.In the following example, R1 and R3 are adjacent and both have interfaces in Area 0. R4 has an adjacency with R3 via Area 34, but R4 has no physical interface in Area 0 and is advertising its loopback 4.4.4.4 into OSPF. R1 doesn't have the route to that loopback.R1#show ip route ospf6.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO 6.6.6.6 [110 / 11] via 10.1.1.5, 01:05:45, Ethernet0172.23.0.0 / 27 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO IA 172.23.23.0 [110 / 74] via 172.12.123.3, 00:04:14, Serial07.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO 7.7.7.7 [110 / 11] via 10.1.1.5, 01:05:45, Ethernet0To resolve this, a virtual link will be built between R3 and R4 through Area 34. The area through which the virtual link is built, the transit area, cannot be a stub area of any kind.R4(config)#router ospf 1R4(config-router)#area 34 virtual-link 3.3.3.3R3(config)#router ospf 12d07h: %OSPF-4-ERRRCV: Received invalid packet: mismatch area ID, from backbone area must be virtual-link but not found from 172.23.23.4, Ethernet0R3(config)#router ospf 1R3(config-router)#area 34 virtual-link 4.4.4.4R3(config-router)#^Z2d07h: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 4.4.4.4 on OSPF_VL0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading DoneA few details worth noting... the virtual link command uses the remote device's RID, not necessarily the IP address on the interface that's in the transit area. Also, don't worry about that error message you see in the output from R3 that is normal and you'll see it until you finish building the virtual link.Always confirm the virtual link with show ip ospf virtual-link. If you've configured it correctly, the VL should come up in a matter of seconds.R3#show ip ospf virtual-linkVirtual Link OSPF_VL0 to router 4.4.4.4 is upRun as demand circuitDoNotAge LSA allowed.Transit area 34, via interface Ethernet0, Cost of using 10Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT,Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5Hello due in 00:00:00Adjacency State FULL (Hello suppressed)Index 2 / 4, retransmission queue length 1, number of retransmission 1First 0x2C8F8E(15) / 0x0(0) Next 0x2C8F8E(15) / 0x0(0)Last retransmission scan length is 1, maximum is 1Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msecLink State retransmission due in 3044 msecVirtual links are actually simple to configure, but for some reason they seem to intimidate people. It's my experience that the error message highlighted in R3's output above causes a lot of panic, but the only thing that message means is that you're not finished configuring the virtual link yet.There are three main misconfigurations that cause 99% of virtual link configuration issues:Using the wrong OSPF RID valueTrying to use a stub area as the transit areaFailure to configure link authentication on the virtual link when Area 0 is running authenticationThat last one is the one that gets forgotten! A virtual link is really an extension of Area 0, and if Area 0 is running link authentication, the virtual link must be configured for it as well. Pay attention to the details. don't panic when you see the error message on the second router you configure with the virtual link, and you'll be ready for any virtual link situation on the job or in the CCNA / CCNP exam room!

#cisco #ccnp #certification #bsci #ospf #virtual #links #stub #total #area #ccna #pass #free #transit
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: OSPF Router Types*** W unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: OSPF Router Types***

When you're preparing to pass the BSCI exam on the way to the coveted Cisco CCNP certification, you can be quickly overwhelmed by the sheer amount of BGP and OSPF knowledge you must demonstrate a mastery of. One set of details that some BSCI and CCNP candidates underestimate are the differences between the OSPF router types. The OSPF router types seem straightforward enough, but what you must keep in mind is that a router can fill more than one of these roles!An OSPF Internal router has one rule - it must have all its interfaces in a single area. It does not mean that area has to be Area 0.An OSPF Backbone router is a router with at least a single area in the OSPF backbone area, Area 0. A router can be both an Internal and Backbone router if all its interfaces are in Area 0.An Area Border Router has at least one interface in Area 0 and another interface in a non-backbone area. ABRs are also one of two router types that can perform OSPF route summarization. (To advertise a summary route from one OSPF area to another, use the area range command on the ABR.)Finally, an ASBR is an OSPF router that is performing route redistribution by injecting routes from another source into the OSPF domain. This is the other OSPF router type that can perform route summarization; to summarize routes being redistributed into OSPF, use the summary-address command on the ASBR.There are several commands you can use to determine the router types in a given OSPF area. The command "show ip ospf" will display quite a bit of information regarding the local router, and this includes whether that router is acting as an ABR or ASBR. To see the routes to the ABRs and ASBRs from the local router, run "show ip ospf border-routers".Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the BSCI exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Bsci #ccnp #exam #ospf #router #type #internal #abr #asbr #redistribution #border #router #pass #ccn
@unimarter UniMarter Blog@unimarter
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Using OSPF's
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Using OSPF's "Summary-Address" Command***

BSCI exam success, not to mention earning your CCNP, can come down to your OSPF route summarization skills. There are a few different commands and situations you need to be ready for, and one of these vital details is the proper use of the "summary-address" command.The summary-address command should be used on an ASBR in order to summarize routes that are being injected into the OSPF domain via redistribution. In the following example, four routes are being redistributed into OSPF on R1, making R1 an ASBR.interface Loopback16
ip address 16.16.16.16 255.0.0.0
!
interface Loopback17
ip address 17.17.17.17 255.0.0.0
!
interface Loopback18
ip address 18.18.18.18 255.0.0.0
!
interface Loopback19
ip address 19.19.19.19 255.0.0.0R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#redistribute connected subnetsThese four routes are seen on the downstream router R2 as External Type-2, the default for routes redistributed into OSPF.R2#show ip route ospf
O E2 17.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial0
O E2 16.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial0
O E2 19.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial0
O E2 18.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:07, Serial0You can probably do this summarization in your head, but do so before continuing with the lab. : )R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#summary-address 16.0.0.0 252.0.0.0Look at the difference in R2's OSPF table.R2#show ip route ospf
O E2 16.0.0.0 / 6 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:05, Serial0The external routes have been successfully summarized, and four routes have been summarized into one single route. Note that the summary route is still marked as an E2 route.There's an interesting side effect from the summarization present on R1:R1#show ip route ospf
O 16.0.0.0 / 6 is a summary, 00:01:51, Null0When you configure summary routes in OSPF, a route to null0 will be installed into the OSPF routing table. This helps to prevent routing loops. Any packets destined for the routes that have been summarized will have a longer match in the routing table....R1#show ip routeGateway of last resort is not setC 17.0.0.0 / 8 is directly connected, Loopback17
C 16.0.0.0 / 8 is directly connected, Loopback16
C 19.0.0.0 / 8 is directly connected, Loopback19
C 18.0.0.0 / 8 is directly connected, Loopback18
O 16.0.0.0 / 6 is a summary, 00:01:51, Null0.. and packets that do not match one of the summarized routes but do match the summary route will be dropped.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ospf #summary #address #command #route #summarization #summarize #bsci #exam #pass #free #tutorial
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Using The OSPF Command &qu unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Using The OSPF Command "Area Range"***

Your BSCI and CCNP exam success depends on knowing the details, and one such detail is knowing the proper way to summarize routes in OSPF. Route summarization is not just a test of your binary conversion abilities, but knowing where and when to summarize routes. It will not surprise any CCNA or CCNP certification candidate that OSPF gives us the most options for route summarization, and therefore more details to know!OSPF offers us two options for route summarization configurations. In a previous tutorial, we looked at the "summary-address" command, and today we'll look at the proper use of the "area range" command.The "area range" command should be used on an Area Border Router (ABR) to summarize routes being advertised from one OSPF area to another. In this tutorial, R1 is acting as an ABR, with interfaces in both Area 0 and Area 1. Four loopbacks have been placed into R1's Area 1.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#network 12.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 a 1R1(config-router)#network 13.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 a 1R1(config-router)#network 14.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 a 1R1(config-router)#network 15.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 a 1The routing table of an OSPF neighbor, R2, shows all four routes.R2#show ip route ospf12.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO IA 12.12.12.12 [110 / 65] via 172.12.123.1, 00:18:52, Serial013.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO IA 13.13.13.13 [110 / 65] via 172.12.123.1, 00:18:42, Serial014.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO IA 14.14.14.14 [110 / 65] via 172.12.123.1, 00:18:32, Serial015.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO IA 15.15.15.15 [110 / 65] via 172.12.123.1, 00:18:32, Serial0To keep the routing tables of downstream routers smaller but still have the desired IP connectivity, we can use the area range command on R1 to summarize these four routes. The key to keep in mind with the area range command is that the area number given in the command is the area containing the destinations, NOT the area that will receive the summary route.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#area 1 range 12.0.0.0 252.0.0.0R2 now shows a single summary route that can be used to reach all four remote networks.R2#show ip route ospfO IA 12.0.0.0 / 6 [110 / 65] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:21, Serial0Interestingly enough, there's now an additional route in R1's routing table.R1#show ip route ospf
O 12.0.0.0 / 6 is a summary, 00:07:53, Null0When you configure summary routes in OSPF, a route to null0 will be installed into the OSPF routing table of the router performing the summarization. This helps to prevent routing loops. Any packets destined for the routes that have been summarized will have a longer match in the routing table, and packets that do not match one of the summarized routes but do match the summary route will be dropped.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bsci #exam #tutorial #ospf #area #range #route #summarization #summary #null #cisco #ccna
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***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: Five OSPF Hub-And-Spoke Details You unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: Five OSPF Hub-And-Spoke Details You Must Know!***

CCNA exam success depends greatly on knowing the details, and if there's one protocol that has a lot of details, it's OSPF! This is true particularly of hub-and-spoke networks, so in this CCNA OSPF tutorial we'll take a look at some of the more important hub-and-spoke OSPF details. This will help you in working with real-world networks as well, since this OSPF network type is one of the more typical network topologies.In OSPF, the hub must become the designated router (DR). The DR election's deciding value is the OSPF interface priority, and the default value is 1. It's not enough to set the hub's OSPF interface to 2, however, since the spoke routers must not become the DR or BDR. You must set the spoke interfaces to an OSPF priority of zero.R2(config)#int s0R2(config-if)#ip ospf priority 0This ensures that the spokes will not become the DR or BDR if the hub goes down.The hub does require a bit more configuration, though. The neighbor command must be used on the hub to indicate the IP address of the potential neighbors.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.2R1(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.3It's common to have an ISDN link as a backup in an OSPF network, and when that ISDN link comes up the hello packets must be able to cross the link. What you don't want is to have the hellos keep the link up! By configuring the ISDN link as an OSPF demand circuit, the link will drop in the absence of interesting traffic, but the OSPF adjacency that formed across the ISDN link will be assumed by the router to still be up. (You usually see this command configured on both sides of the ISDN link, but it's only needed on one side. It doesn't hurt anything to put it on both sides, though.)R2(config)#int bri0R2(config-if)#ip ospf demand-circuitA final detail of OSPF hub-and-spoke and demand circuits actually takes place at Layer 2. For the OSPF hello packets to successfully be transmitted across an ISDN link or a frame relay network, the broadcast option must be enabled in the appropriate frame and dialer map statements. Failure to enable this option can lead to a situation where pings will be successful, but OSPF adjacencies will not form.R2(config-if)#dialer map ip 172.12.21.1 name R1 broadcast 5551111R2(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.1 221 broadcastWhen you're troubleshooting OSPF in a production network or your CCNA / CCNP home lab, don't just look at Layer 3 - because everything's got to be right at the physical and data link layers in order for the network layer to function correctly!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Get your CCNA study guide with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccna #cisco #certification #exam #free #tutorial #ospf #hub #spoke #neighbor #isdn #demand #circuit #
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Tutorial: The Role Of The OSPF ASBR*** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Tutorial: The Role Of The OSPF ASBR***

To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP certification, you've got to master the (many) details of OSPF. You might have thought there were quite a few OSPF details in your CCNA studies, but you'll now build on that foundation on the way to earning your CCNP.One such detail is the role of the Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR) in OSPF. The name itself raises some eyebrows, since you learned in your CCNA studies that OSPF doesn't use autonomous systems! Just as an OSPF Area Border Router borders multiple OSPF areas, the ASBR borders the entire OSPF domain and another source of routes. This can be another dynamic routing protocol, or directly connected networks that are not being advertised into OSPF by the network command.Let's say we have a router running both OSPF and RIP version 2. By default, the RIP process will not contain any OSPF-discovered routes, and vice versa. The two separate routing processes are just that - separate. If we want the other OSPF routers to know about the RIP routes, route redistribution must be configured. When the RIP routes are redistributed into OSPF, that router is then an ASBR.In the below example, RIP subnets have been redistributed into OSPF. A seed metric is not necessary when redistributing routes into OSPF. The command "show ip ospf" confirms that this router is now an ASBR.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnetsR1#show ip ospfRouting Process "ospf 1" with ID 1.1.1.1Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routesSupports opaque LSAIt is an autonomous system boundary routerThe ASBR can also perform route summarization on the routes being injected into OSPF with the summary-address command. (To configure OSPF inter-area summarization, use the area range command.) By mastering route summarization and route redistribution, you're well on your way to passing the BSCI exam and earning your CCNP certification!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccnp #bsci #ospf #asbr #pass #cisco #certification #free #tutorial #exam #Bryant #chris #advantage
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***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: OSPF Hub-And-Spoke*** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: OSPF Hub-And-Spoke***

CCNA certification demands that you master the basics of OSPF, and for many studying for the CCNA exam, their first exposure to OSPF is a hub-and-spoke configuration. That's a tough way to get started, because a hub-and-spoke configuration built over an NBMA technology such as Frame Relay requires quite a bit of attention to detail. Let's take a quick look at several common OSPF configuration errors and how to avoid them on your CCNA test.Make sure the hub is the designated router and that there are no backup designated routers. This is done by setting the OSPF interface priority to zero on the spoke routers. This not only ensures that the hub wins the DR election with its default OSPF interface priority of 1, but it prevents the spokes from ever having a chance to become the DR or BDR.Configure neighbor statements on the hub. Since we're dealing with an NBMA network, the hub cannot dynamically discover its neighbors. Neighbor statements are not needed on the spokes. (They don't hurt anything, but they don't do anything, either.)Finally, if your OSPF adjacencies do not form as expected, make sure to use your OSI model knowledge to approach the problem. The issue may actually be at Layer Two, with your Frame Relay configuration. If you don't use the "broadcast" option on your frame relay statements, OSPF hellos will not be transmitted successfully between potential neighbors. OSPF hellos are multicast, but the "broadcast" option for Frame Relay includes multicasts.By paying special attention to these details, you're that much close to CCNA exam day success and earning your certification. I recommend that you get some experience with configuring OSPF hub-and-spoke before taking the CCNA exam, because it?s by actually performing tasks such as this that makes you supremely confident on CCNA test day.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccna #certification #exam #pass #icnd #intro #ospf #Bryant #advantage #hub #spoke #designated #route
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***Cisco CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Route Summar unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP Certification / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Route Summarization Basics***

As you earn your CCNA and CCNP certification, you're going to have to get comfortable with manually summarizing routes. This isn't just another reason to learn binary math (although it's a good one!), but summarizing routes is a true real-world skill that can help your network operate more efficiently. So the question isn't just how to summarize routes, it's why.When you summarize routes in RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, or OSPF, you're replacing a series of routes with a summary route and mask. With RIP, IGRP, and EIGRP, this actually lessens the size of the routing update packet itself - multiple routes are replaced with the summary route. For instance, the routes 8.0.0.0 / 8, 9.0.0.0 / 8, 10.0.0.0 / 8, and 11.0.0.0 / 8 can be summarized as 8.0.0.0 252.0.0.0. Only the summary address will be found in the update packet, making it concise yet complete.Summarizing routes can also make the routing table smaller, yet still allow for complete IP connectivity when done correctly. Using the above example, the four more-specific routes will be replaced by a single summary route. Since the entire routing table is parsed before the routing process is complete, keeping the routing table as small as possible does help speed the routing process as a whole.To prepare for success on your CCNA and CCNP exam, you've got to know how to summarize routes as well as the specific commands for doing so with OSPF, EIGRP, RIP, and IGRP - but knowing why to summarize routes is just as important as knowing how! Here are some additional tips on route summarization.With RIP version 2 and EIGRP, manual route summarization is configured on the interface that will be advertising the summary. This is done with the route summarization command "ip summary-address."RIP version 2 and EIGRP also both perform autosummarization on routes that are advertised across classful network boundaries. This is disabled with the protocol-level command "no auto-summary".OSPF offers two different route summarization commands. To summarize routes from one OSPF area to another, use the "area range" command; to summarize routes learned via redistribution, use the "summary-address" command on the ASBR.With proper planning and an understanding of binary math, you'll master route summarization quickly with some practice - and you'll be ready for success on real-world networks as well as the CCNA and CCNP exams!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccnp #ccna #exam #pass #free #certification #route #summarization #rip #igrp #eigrp #ospf
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***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Exam Tutorial: Five Debugs You Must Know* unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Exam Tutorial: Five Debugs You Must Know***

To pass the BSCI exam and move one step closer to CCNP certification success, you've got to know how and when to use debug commands to troubleshoot and verify network operations. While you should never practice debug commands on a production network, it's important to get some hands-on experience with them and not rely on "router simulators" and books to learn about them.When it comes to RIP, "debug ip rip" is the primary debug to use. This debug will show you the contents of the routing update packets, and is vital in diagnosing RIP version mismatches and routing update authentication issues.You know how to use the variance command to configure unequal-cost load-sharing with IGRP, but IGRP has no topology table that will give you the feasible successor metrics you need. With IGRP, you need to use the "debug ip igrp transactions" command to get these vital metrics.Several factors are considered by OSPF-enabled routers when it comes to forming adjacencies, including hello and dead timer settings. If an adjacency doesn't form when you think it should, run "debug ip ospf adj". The reason the adjacency isn't forming is usually seen quickly with this command's output.Let's not ignore Layer Two! If frame relay mappings are not forming according to your configuration, run "debug frame lmi". This debug will allow you to quickly diagnose and correct any LMI mismatches.When it comes to PPP, it can be very frustrating to try to spot a problem with a password or username. Instead of staring at the configuration for 10 minutes, run "debug ppp negotiation" and send a ping over the link. This command will help you spot the router with the misconfigured username or password, not to mention saving you a lot of time!Effectively using debugs during your CCNA and CCNP exam study will help you truly understand what's going on "behind the command" - and it will really come in handy on that day when your production network just isn't doing what you (think) you told it to do!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNA exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccna #ccnp #exam #certification #pass #free #debug #ip #rip #ospf #ppp #eigrp #igrp #router #Bryant #
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Certification Exam: Five OSPF Details You unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Certification Exam: Five OSPF Details You Must Know***

Preparing for your BSCI exam on your way to the Cisco CCNP certification, you can quickly get overwhelmed by the details! Here are five commonly overlooked points you should keep in mind when it comes to your OSPF studies.The virtual link command includes the area number of the transit area, and if authentication is being used on Area 0, the virtual link command must include the authentication statement. Since the virtual link is a logical extension of Area 0, it stands to reason that it has to be configured with the authentication type and password configured on Area 0.OSPF requires no seed metric when routes are being redistributed into an OSPF domain. The default cost for such routes is 20, but you do need to use the "subnets" option if you want to redistribute subnets into OSPF.There are two kinds of external OSPF routes. The default, E2, reflects the cost of the path from the ASBR to the external destination. The other option, E1, has a cost reflecting the entire path from the local router to the external destination.When configuring stub areas, each router in the area must agree that the area is stub. For a total stub area, only the ABR needs to be configured with the "no-summary" option, but all routers in the area still must agree that the area is stub.Routers in a stub area will have a default route to use to reach external destinations; routers in total stub areas will have a default route to use in order to reach both external and inter-area networks.The BSCI exam and CCNP certification require a great deal of dedication and hard work. Keep studying and paying attention to the details, and you will get there!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNA exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccnp #cisco #exam #certification #bsci #ospf #stub #total #area #default #route #virtual #link #auth
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***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: Route Summarization*** Prepari unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: Route Summarization***

Preparing to pass the CCNA exam and earn this important Cisco certification? Route summarization is just one of the many skills you'll have to master in order to earn your CCNA. Whether it's RIP version 2, OSPF, or EIGRP, the CCNA exam will demand that you can flawlessly configure route summarization.Route summarization isn't just important for the CCNA exam. It's a valuable skill to have in the real world as well. Correctly summarizing routes can lead to smaller routing tables that are still able to route packets accurately - what I like to call "concise and complete" routing tables.The first skill you've got to have in order to work with route summarization is binary math; more specifically, you must be able to take multiple routes and come up with both a summary route and mask to advertise to downstream routers. Given the networks 100.16.0.0 / 16, 100.17.0.0 / 16, 100.18.0.0 / 16, and 100.19.0.0 / 16, could you quickly come up with both the summary address and mask? All you need to do is break the four network numbers down into binary strings. We know the last two octets will all convert to the binary string 00000000, so in this article we'll only illustrate how to convert the first and second octet from decimal to binary.100 16 = 01100100 00010000100 17 = 01100100 00010001100 18 = 01100100 00010010100 19 = 01100100 00010011To come up with the summary route, just work from left to right and draw a line where the four networks no longer have a bit in common. For these four networks, that point comes between the 14th and 15th bits. This leaves us with this string: 01100100 000100xx. All you need to do is convert that string back to decimal, which gives us 100 for the first octet and 16 for the second. (The two x values are bits on the right side of the line, which aren't used in calculating the summary route.) Since we know that zero is the value for the last two octets, the resulting summary network number is 100.16.0.0.But we're not done! We now have to come up with the summary mask to advertise along with the summary route. To arrive at the summary route, write out a mask in binary with a "1" for every bit to the left of the line we drew previously, and a "0" for every bit to the right. That gives us the following string:11111111 11111100 00000000 00000000Converting that to dotted decimal, we arrive at the summary mask 255.252.0.0. The correct summary network and mask to advertise are 100.16.0.0 252.0.0.0.For the CCNA exam, emphasis is put on knowing how to advertise these summary routes in RIPv2 and EIGRP. For both of these protocols, route summarization happens at the interface level - it's not configured under the protocol. On the interface that should advertise the summary route, use the command "ip summary-address". Here are examples of how the above summary route would be configured on ethernet0 in both RIPv2 and EIGRP.R1(config-if)#ip summary-address rip 100.16.0.0 255.252.0.0R1(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 100 100.16.0.0 255.252.0.0The main difference between the two is that the EIGRP command must specify the AS number - that's what the "100" is in the middle of the EIGRP command. Since RIPv2 does not use AS numbers, there's no additional value needed in the configuration.For OSPF, the commands differ. If you're configuring inter-area route summarization, use the "area range" command; if you are summarizing routes that are being redistributed into OSPF, use the summary-address command under the OSPF routing process on the ASBR. Neither of these are interface-level commands.I speak from experience when I tell you that practice makes perfect on the CCNA exam, especially with binary and summarization questions. The great thing about these questions is that there are no grey areas with these questions - you either know how to do it or you don't. And with practice and an eye for detail, you can master these skills, pass the exam, and become a CCNA. Here's to your success!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNA exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccna #exam #pass #certification #video #cbt #route #summarization #training #ospf #rip #eigrp #summa
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Route Summarization*** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Exam Tutorial: Route Summarization***

Preparing to pass the BSCI exam and earn your Cisco CCNP? Route summarization is just one of the many skills you'll have to master in order to earn your CCNP. Whether it's RIP version 2, OSPF, or EIGRP, the BSCI exam will demand that you can flawlessly configure route summarization.Route summarization isn't just important for the BSCI exam. It's a valuable skill to have in the real world as well. Correctly summarizing routes can lead to smaller routing tables that are still able to route packets accurately - what I like to call "concise and complete" routing tables.The first skill you've got to have in order to work with route summarization is binary math more specifically, you must be able to take multiple routes and come up with both a summary route and mask to advertise to downstream routers. Given the networks 100.16.0.0 / 16, 100.17.0.0 / 16, 100.18.0.0 / 16, and 100.19.0.0 / 16, could you quickly come up with both the summary address and mask? All you need to do is break the four network numbers down into binary strings. We know the last two octets will all convert to the binary string 00000000, so in this article we'll only illustrate how to convert the first and second octet from decimal to binary.100 16 = 01100100 00010000100 17 = 01100100 00010001100 18 = 01100100 00010010100 19 = 01100100 00010011To come up with the summary route, just work from left to right and draw a line where the four networks no longer have a bit in common. For these four networks, that point comes between the 14th and 15th bits. This leaves us with this string: 01100100 000100xx. All you need to do is convert that string back to decimal, which gives us 100 for the first octet and 16 for the second. (The two x values are bits on the right side of the line, which aren't used in calculating the summary route.) Since we know that zero is the value for the last two octets, the resulting summary network number is 100.16.0.0.But we're not done! We now have to come up with the summary mask to advertise along with the summary route. To arrive at the summary route, write out a mask in binary with a "1" for every bit to the left of the line we drew previously, and a "0" for every bit to the right. That gives us the following string:11111111 11111100 00000000 00000000Converting that to dotted decimal, we arrive at the summary mask 255.252.0.0. The correct summary network and mask to advertise are 100.16.0.0 252.0.0.0.For the BSCI exam, emphasis is put on knowing how to advertise these summary routes in RIPv2, EIGRP, and OSPF. For RIP v2 and EIGRP, route summarization happens at the interface level - it's not configured under the protocol. On the interface that should advertise the summary route, use the command "ip summary-address". Here are examples of how the above summary route would be configured on ethernet0 in both RIPv2 and EIGRP.R1(config-if)#ip summary-address rip 100.16.0.0 255.252.0.0R1(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 100 100.16.0.0 255.252.0.0The main difference between the two is that the EIGRP command must specify the AS number - that's what the "100" is in the middle of the EIGRP command. Since RIPv2 does not use AS numbers, there's no additional value needed in the configuration.For OSPF, the commands differ. If you're configuring inter-area route summarization, use the "area range" command. The number following "area" is the area containing the routes being summarized, not the area receiving the summary.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#area 1 range 100.16.0.0 255.252.0.0If you are summarizing routes that are being redistributed into OSPF, use the summary-address command under the OSPF routing process on the ASBR.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#summary-address 100.16.0.0 255.252.0.0I speak from experience when I tell you that practice makes perfect on the BSCI exam, especially with binary and summarization questions. The great thing about these questions is that there are no grey areas with these questions - you either know how to do it or you don't. And with practice and an eye for detail, you can master these skills, pass the exam, and become a CCNP. Here's to your success on these tough Cisco certification exams!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNA exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccnp #exam #bsci #video #route #summary #summarization #rip #eigrp #ospf #area #range #address #pass
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Certification: Introduction To ISIS Termin unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Certification: Introduction To ISIS Terminology***

When you're studying to pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP certification, you're going to be introduced to ISIS. ISIS and OSPF are both link-state protocols, but ISIS works quite differently from OSPF. You must master these details in order to earn your CCNP.One of the major differences between OSPF and ISIS will be evident to you when you first begin your BSCI exam studies, and that is the terminology. ISIS uses terms that no other protocol you've studied to date uses, and learning these new terms is the first step to BSCI and CCNP exam success.First off, what does "IS" stand for in "ISIS"? It stands for "Intermediate System", which sounds like a group of routers. As opposed to Autonomous Systems, which are logical groups of routers, an Intermediate System is simply a single router. That's it.You'll also become familiar with End Systems, referred to in ISIS as an "ES". The End System is simply an end host.ISIS and OSPF both use the concept of areas, but ISIS takes a different approach to this concept. ISIS routers use three different types of routing levels, according to the area a router has been placed in. Level 2 routers are connected only to the backbone and serve as a transit device between non-backbone areas. Level 1 routers are totally internal to a non-backbone area.ISIS uses both Level-1 and Level-2 Hellos, meaning that the two types of routers just mentioned cannot form an adjacency. Luckily for us, there is a middle ground, and that is the Level 1-2 router. These routers connect non-backbone areas to backbone areas. L1-L2 routers keep two separate routing tables, one for L1 routing and another for L2 routing. This is the default setting for a Cisco router, and L1-L2 routers can form adjacencies with both L1 and L2 routers.Part of the challenge of learning ISIS is getting used to the differences between ISIS and OSPF. Keep studying the terminology, master one concept at a time, and soon you'll be a master of ISIS and a CCNP to boot!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccnp #certification #bsci #exam #pass #isis #ospf #level #routing #hello #area #domain #intermediate #end #system #
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Tutorial: Comparing OSPF and ISIS Hellos* unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Tutorial: Comparing OSPF and ISIS Hellos***

While studying to pass the BSCI exam and preparing to earn your CCNP certification, you'll quickly notice that while OSPF and ISIS are both link-state protocols, there are a lot of differences between the two. One major difference is the way the two protocols handle hello packets.Hello packets are imperative to keeping OSPF and ISIS adjacencies alive. Since they are both link-state protocols, neither of them will send updates at any specified time. Hello packets are the only method by which routers running OSPF and ISIS can see that a neighboring router is still available.OSPF gives us some great options when it comes to keeping routing table size down via the use of stub and total stub areas, but to OSPF, a hello packet is a hello packet. ISIS routers are capable of sending two different types of hellos - Level 1 and Level 2.ISIS routers are classified as Level 1 (L1), Level 2 (L2), and Level 1-2 (L1-L2). By default, Cisco routers are L1-L2 routers; this means that every ISIS-enabled interface will send out both L1 and L2 hellos.If one of the interfaces is forming only an L1 or L2 adjacency, there's no reason to send out hellos for the other adjacency type. For example, if R1 is forming an L1 adjacency with R2 via its ethernet0 interface, there is no reason to allow the router to transmit L2 hellos. To hardcode a router interface to send only L1 or L2 hellos, use the isis circuit-type command.R1(config)#interface ethernet0R1(config-if)#isis circuit-type level-1Note: To configure this interface to send only L2 hellos, the full command is "isis circuit-type level-2-only", not just "level-2".This configuration would prevent L2 hellos from being transmitted out ethernet0. While this does save router resources and prevents unnecessary bandwidth usage, there is also no way an L2 adjacency can be formed - so double-check your network topology before using this command!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNA exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccnp #bsci #exam #free #pass #certification #tutorial #ospf #isis #hello #level #link #state #protocol #router #swi
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Certification: Route Redistribution And Th unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Certification: Route Redistribution And The Seed Metric***

In the first part of this free CCNP / BSCI tutorial, we looked at how leaving one simple word out of our route redistribution configuration - "subnets" - resulted in an incomplete routing table when redistributing routes from RIP to OSPF. (If you missed that part of the tutorial, visit my website's "Free Tutorials" section.) Today, we'll look at redistributing OSPF routes into RIP and identify another common redistribution error.We are using a three-router network. R5 is running RIP, R1 is serving as a hub between R5 and R3 and is running RIP and OSPF, and R3 is running OSPF.To begin this lab, we'll add three loopbacks to R3 and advertise them to R1 via OSPF.R3(config)#int loopback33R3(config-if)#ip address 33.3.3.3 255.255.255.255R3(config-if)#int loopback34R3(config-if)#ip address 34.3.3.3 255.255.255.255R3(config-if)#int loopback35R3(config-if)#ip address 35.3.3.3 255.255.255.255R3(config-if)#router ospf 1R3(config-router)#network 33.3.3.3 0.0.0.0 area 1R3(config-router)#network 34.3.3.3 0.0.0.0 area 1R3(config-router)#network 35.3.3.3 0.0.0.0 area 1R1 sees all three of these routes in its routing table.R1#show ip route ospf34.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO IA 34.3.3.3 [110 / 65] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:55, Serial035.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO IA 35.3.3.3 [110 / 65] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:45, Serial033.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO IA 33.3.3.3 [110 / 65] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:55, Serial0We'll now redistribute these routes into RIP on R1. Remember the "subnets" option we talked about in the first part of this tutorial? There is no such option when redistributing OSPF routes into RIP, as IOS Help shows us.R1(config)#router ripR1(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 ?match Redistribution of OSPF routesmetric Metric for redistributed routesroute-map Route map referencevrf VPN Routing / Forwarding InstanceR1(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1The routes have been redistributed into RIP with the redistribute ospf 1 command. (The "1" is the OSPF process number.) Let's look at R5 and see the results.R5#show ip route ripR5#The routes aren't there, but we didn't get a warning from the router that we needed to do anything else. What is the problem?The problem is that RIP requires a seed metric to be specified when redistributing routes into that protocol. A seed metric is a "starter metric" that gives the RIP process a metric it can work with. The OSPF metric of cost is incomprehensible to RIP, since RIP's sole metric is hop count. We've got to give RIP a metric it understands when redistributing routes into that protocol, so let's go back to R1 and do so.R1(config)#router ripR1(config-router)#no redistribute ospf 1R1(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 2R5 now sees the routes. Note that the metric contained in the brackets is the seed metric.R5#show ip route rip34.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 34.3.3.3 [120 / 2] via 100.1.1.1, 00:00:24, Ethernet035.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 35.3.3.3 [120 / 2] via 100.1.1.1, 00:00:24, Ethernet033.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 33.3.3.3 [120 / 2] via 100.1.1.1, 00:00:24, Ethernet0If you read the previous tutorial, you may have noticed that we did not specify a seed metric for OSPF. OSPF does not require a seed metric to be set during redistribution. You also noticed that the router did tell us that there might be a problem when we left the "subnets" option out of RIP>OSPF redistribution, but the router didn't tell us anything about a seed metric when we performed OSPF>RIP redistribution. This is a detail you must know by heart in order to make your route redistribution successful!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccnp #bsci #exam #route #redistribution #ospf #rip #seed #metric #routing #table #subnet
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***What Certification Should You Pursue After The CCNA?*** O unimarter UniMarter
***What Certification Should You Pursue After The CCNA?***

Once you've got your CCNA, you're ready to move on to the next level, the Professional certifications. For years, Cisco had one Professional certification, the Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) certification. Over time, Cisco has expanded this level of certifications to include the Cisco Certified Security Professional (CCSP) and Cisco Certified Voice Professional (CCVP).With security and voice being the two most rapidly expanding areas of today's networks, some new CCNAs consider going after the CCSP or CCVP without first adding the CCNP to their resume.While it's temping to hurry up and get a Cisco security or voice certification, the best thing you can do for your networking career is achieve your CCNP certification first, then decide on the CCVP or CCSP.Why? Because the CCNA is just the tip of a very large iceberg when it comes to routing and switching. It's a very important accomplishment, and the CCNA is indeed the foundation of your networking career, but you need to add on to that level of understanding routing and switching before moving on to more specialized areas.Two examples are OSPF and BGP. You learn about the theory of OSPF and some basic and intermediate configurations of that protocol in your CCNA studies, but the knowledge you acquire of OSPF in your CCNP studies is invaluable. As for BGP, there is no BGP in the CCNA curriculum, but it is a great idea to have some BGP knowledge in today's networks. It's also good for your career.I know it is a huge temptation to go after the security and voice certifications while not paying attention to the CCNP. Do yourself a huge favor and add the tremendous amount of routing and switching knowledge needed for the CCNP to your knowledgebase, and you can then move on to the CCSP or CCVP. Even better, you'll be better prepared to climb the biggest certification mountain around - the CCIE!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNA exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #pass #free #exam #icnd #intro #ccnp #bsci #ccvp #ccsp #next #bgp #ospf #certification #cisco
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***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification: OSPF E2 vs. E1 Routes*** unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification: OSPF E2 vs. E1 Routes***

OSPF is a major topic on both the CCNA and CCNP exams, and it's also the topic that requires the most attention to detail. Where dynamic routing protocols such as RIP and IGRP have only one router type, a look at a Cisco routing table shows several different OSPF route types.R1#show ip route
Codes:C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGPIn this tutorial, we'll take a look at the difference between two of these route types, E1 and E2.Route redistribution is the process of taking routes learned via one routing protocol and injecting those routes into another routing domain. (Static and connected routes can also be redistributed.) When a router running OSPF takes routes learned by another routing protocol and makes them available to the other OSPF-enabled routers it's communicating with, that router becomes an Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR).
Let's work with an example where R1 is running both OSPF and RIP. R4 is in the same OSPF domain as R1, and we want R4 to learn the routes that R1 is learning via RIP. This means we have to perform route redistribution on the ASBR. The routes that are being redistributed from RIP into OSPF will appear as E2 routes on R4:R4#show ip route ospfO E2 5.1.1.1 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet06.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E2 6.1.1.1 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet0172.12.0.0 / 16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masksO E2 172.12.21.0 / 30 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:32,
Ethernet0O E2 7.1.1.1 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet015.0.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E2 15.1.1.0 [110 / 20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:32, Ethernet0E2 is the default route type for routes learned via redistribution. The key with E2 routes is that the cost of these routes reflects only the cost of the path from the ASBR to the final destination; the cost of the path from R4 to R1 is not reflected in this cost. (Remember that OSPF's metric for a path is referred to as "cost".)
In this example, we want the cost of the routes to reflect the entire path, not just the path between the ASBR and the destination network. To do so, the routes must be redistributed into OSPF as E1 routes on the ASBR, as shown here.R1#conf tEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL / Z.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets metric-type 1Now on R4, the routes appear as E1 routes and have a larger metric, since the entire path cost is now reflected in the routing table.O E1 5.1.1.1 [110 / 94] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet06.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E1 6.1.1.1 [110 / 100] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet0172.12.0.0 / 16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masksO E1 172.12.21.0 / 30 [110 / 94] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:32, Ethernet0O E1 7.1.1.1 [110 / 94] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet015.0.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E1 15.1.1.0 [110 / 94] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:32, Ethernet0Knowing the difference between E1 and E2 routes is vital for CCNP exam success, as well as fully understanding a production router's routing table. Good luck in your studies!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccnp #bsci #ospf #asbr #e1 #e2 #route #difference #bryant #12933 #ccna #icnd #intro #pass #exam #free
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***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification: OSPF ASBRs Explained And I unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification: OSPF ASBRs Explained And Illustrated***

When I first started studying for my CCNP, some of the concepts of OSPF really confused me. This was especially true for the ASBR, stub areas, and total stub areas. Sure, I could memorize the LSA types associated with these devices and area types, but there just weren't any illustrations that explained exactly what was going on.This CCNP tutorial shows an ASBR in operation, and also introduces you to a basic example of route redistribution. Don't worry, it gets more complicated. :)Here's the network we'll be working with in this tutorial:R5|R1 / R2 R3Networks:R1 - R5 Ethernet Segment: 10.1.1.0 / 24R1 - R2 - R3 Serial Segment: 172.16.123.0 / 24 (Preconfigured with OSPF)R1 and R5 are running RIP over their common Ethernet segment, 10.1.1.0 / 24. R5 has three loopbacks it will be advertising into the RIP domain.R1 is also running OSPF, with R2 and R3 as neighbors. Even though R1 knows about the loopbacks on R5, its OSPF neighbors do not. R1 has these routes in its RIP routing table, and for OSPF neighbors to learn of these routes, route redistribution must be manually configured.R5#conf t
R5(config)#router rip
R5(config-router)#version 2
R5(config-router)#no auto-summary
R5(config-router)#network 5.0.0.0
R5(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0R1#conf t
R1(config)#router rip
R1(config-router)#version 2
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
R1(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0R1#show ip route rip
5.0.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 3 subnets
R 5.1.1.0 [120 / 1] via 10.1.1.5, 00:00:10, Ethernet0
R 5.2.1.0 [120 / 1] via 10.1.1.5, 00:00:10, Ethernet0
R 5.3.1.0 [120 / 1] via 10.1.1.5, 00:00:10, Ethernet0R1 has a route for all three of R5?s loopback interfaces, learned via RIP. R1 is also running OSPF, but its neighbors R2 and R3 don?t know about these RIP routes:R2#show ip route ospfR2# < no output from show command means no routes! >R3#show ip route ospfR3#Be careful when configuring redistribution use IOS Help to make sure you?re not missing any vital options. IOS Help shows that there is a ?subnets? option when redistributing RIP into OSPF. If that is left off, only classful networks are redistributed (as the router is kind enough to tell us). In this case, we have no classful networks, so there will be no redistribution. R2 will not see the RIP routes.R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#redistribute rip?metric Metric for redistributed routes
metric-type OSPF / IS-IS exterior metric type for redistributed routes
route-map Route map reference
subnets Consider subnets for redistribution into OSPF
tag Set tag for routes redistributed into OSPFR1(config-router)#redistribute rip
% Only classful networks will be redistributedR2#show ip route ospfR2#clear ip route *R2#show ip route ospfR2#On R1, we?ll now use the ?subnets? option, and the RIP subnets are successfully redistributed into OSPF.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnetsR2 now sees the redistributed routes.R2#show ip route ospf5.0.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 3 subnetsO E2 5.1.1.0 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:08, Serial0.123O E2 5.2.1.0 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:08, Serial0.123O E2 5.3.1.0 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:08, Serial0.12310.0.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E2 10.1.1.0 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:08, Serial0.123Notice that the routes are marked as ?E2?. The E indicates that these are external routes these are routes that were learned by OSPF via redistribution.Naturally, you?ll want to ping these networks to make sure you have two-way communication. Even though the routes to these loopbacks are in the routing table, pings fail:R2#ping 5.1.1.1Type escape sequence to abort.Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 5.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:.....Success rate is 0 percent (0 / 5)Keep this in mind when troubleshooting: It?s not enough to have a route to a destination for pings to succeed there?s got to be a path back. At this point, R5 doesn?t know where the 172.12.123.0 network is, so there?s no way the ping can get back. More route redistribution is necessary on R1.Your first instinct may be to redistribute OSPF routes into RIP to make this work, but remember that the 172.12.123.0 / 24 network isn?t known to R1 via OSPF it?s a directly connected network. We can redistribute connected networks into RIP to give R5 a route to 172.12.123.0 / 24, which will give the ICMP packets a path back to R2, which will allow pings to succeed.R1(config)#router ripR1(config-router)#redistribute connectedR5#show ip route rip1.0.0.0 / 32 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 1.1.1.1 [120 / 1] via 10.1.1.1, 00:00:02, Ethernet0172.12.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 172.12.123.0 [120 / 1] via 10.1.1.1, 00:00:02, Ethernet0R2#ping 5.1.1.1Type escape sequence to abort.Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 5.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:!!!!!Success rate is 100 percent (5 / 5), round-trip min / avg / max = 68 / 69 / 76 msPerforming this redistribution makes R1 an ASBR, as shown here with show ip ospf. This command even shows you what protocol(s) are being redistributed into OSPF.R1#show ip ospfRouting Process "ospf 1" with ID 1.1.1.1Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routesSupports opaque LSAIt is an autonomous system boundary routerRedistributing External Routes from,rip, includes subnets in redistributionKnowing exactly what the ASBR does and how to configure route redistribution are just a few of the many OSPF skills you'll need to earn your CCNP. Like any other Cisco skill, breaking a complex topic like OSPF down into smaller, manageable pieces is the best way to master these topics and pass the CCNP exams.Keep watching The Bryant Advantage website for more free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!To your success,Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNA and CCNP tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, visit the website and download your free copies. You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNA exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #ccnp #ospf #asbr #pass #free #exam #ccnp #certification #redistribution #route #icnd #bsci
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***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Certification: Troubleshooting Route Redi unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNP / BSCI Certification: Troubleshooting Route Redistribution, Part I***

If there's one CCNP / BSCI topic that looks so easy but can lead to a real headache, it's route redistribution. I'm not even talking about the routing loops and suboptimal routing that can result when route redistribution is done without proper planning - I'm talking about the basic commands themselves. Leaving out one single command option, or forgetting what else needs to be redistributed when redistributing dynamically discovered routes, can leave you with a routing table that looks complete but does not result in full IP connectivity.In this free CCNP / BSCI tutorial series, we'll take a look at three common errors in route redistribution configurations, and how to fix them. We'll use three routers, R1, R3, and R5. R1 and R5 are in a RIPv2 domain and R1 and R3 are in an OSPF domain. R1 will be performing two-way route redistribution.R5 is advertising its loopback, 5.5.5.5 / 24, into the RIPv2 domain. R1 sees this route in its RIP routing table:R1#show ip route rip5.0.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 5.5.5.0 [120 / 1] via 100.1.1.5, 00:00:01, Ethernet0For R3 to see this route, route redistribution must be configured on R1. We'll use the redistribute rip command to do so.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#redistribute rip% Only classful networks will be redistributedThe router immediately gives us a message that "only classful networks will be redistributed". What does this mean? Let's go to R3 and see if that router is receiving this route.R3#show ip route ospf< no output >When we get no result from a show command, that means there's nothing to show. The only routes that will be successfully redistributed with the current configuration on R1 are classful networks, and 5.5.5.0 / 24 is a subnet.To further illustrate the point, a classful network has been added to R5. This network is 16.0.0.0 / 8, and is now being advertised by RIP. R1 sees this network as classful...R1#show ip route ripR 16.0.0.0 / 8 [120 / 1] via 100.1.1.5, 00:00:00, Ethernet05.0.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsR 5.5.5.0 [120 / 1] via 100.1.1.5, 00:00:00, Ethernet0... and R3 is receiving the route through redistribution.R3#show ip route ospfO E2 16.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:08, Serial0.31To redistribute both classful and classless networks, the option "subnets" must be added to the redistribute command on R1.R1(config)#router ospf 1R1(config-router)#no redistribute ripR1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnetsR3 will now see both the classful and classless networks being redistributed into OSPF. (100.1.1.0 is the network connecting R1 and R5.)R3#show ip route ospfO E2 16.0.0.0 / 8 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:20, Serial0.31100.0.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E2 100.1.1.0 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:20, Serial0.315.0.0.0 / 24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsO E2 5.5.5.0 [110 / 20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:20, Serial0.31This is one of the most common errors made during route redistribution, but now you know what to look out for! In the next part of this free CCNP / BSCI tutorial, we'll take a look at another such error.Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of free CCNP and CCNA tutorials, The Ultimate CCNA Study Package, and Ultimate CCNP Study Packages.
For a FREE copy of his latest e-books, ?How To Pass The CCNA? and ?How To Pass The CCNP?, just visit the website! You can also get FREE CCNA and CCNP exam questions every day! Pass the CCNP exam with The Bryant Advantage!

#Ccnp #bsci #exam #certification #pass #route #redistribution #subnets #ospf #rip #bgp #table #show #
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***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Case Study: Frame Relay, Pings, unimarter UniMarter
***Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Case Study: Frame Relay, Pings, And Routing Protocols***

Cisco CCNA certification training includes troubleshooting your own work and that of others. The best CCNA certification training you can do is indeed troubleshooting your own Cisco router and switch configurations - as I'm always telling my students, "I can guarantee that any error you make has been made before, and you'll probably see it again one day." One such common error involves two very important CCNA certification topics - Frame Relay and routing protocols.A student was working on his CCNA exam home lab and came up with an interesting problem. He set Frame Relay up in a hub-and-spoke configuration with R1 as the hub and R2 and R3 as the spokes. He wrote the following frame map statements:frame-relay map ip 172.12.123.2 122frame-relay map ip 172.12.123.3 123He was able to ping both spokes from the hub, so he assumed everything was working correctly. Then he configured RIP version 2 on the router and got the following result after running "debug ip rip" and clearing the routing table with "clear ip route *":03:33:01: IP: s=172.12.123.1 (local), d=224.0.0.9 (Serial0), len 72, sending broad / multicast03:33:01: IP: s=172.12.123.1 (local), d=224.0.0.9 (Serial0), len 72, encapsulation failedYou may have already spotted the problem, and if you did, your CCNA certification exam studies are going well! The problem is that the "broadcast" option was left off the frame map statements. "broadcast" must be configured on frame map statements in order to send broadcasts and multicasts across the frame link. As you know from your CCNA certification exam studies, RIP version 1 broadcasts updates and RIP version 2 multicasts them, so the "broadcast" option must be present for either version to send updates by using those frame mappings.He then rewrote the frame map statements as shown below....R1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 122 broadcastR1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.3 123 broadcast... and the RIP updates went out as expected.R1#debug ip ripRIP protocol debugging is onR1#clear ip route *06:22:13: RIP: sending general request on Loopback0 to 224.0.0.906:22:13: RIP: sending general request on Serial0 to 224.0.0.906:22:13: RIP: ignored v2 packet from 1.1.1.1 (sourced from one of our addresses)06:22:14: RIP: received v2 update from 172.12.123.3 on Serial006:22:14: 1.1.1.1 / 32 -> 0.0.0.0 in 3 hops06:22:14: 2.2.2.2 / 32 -> 0.0.0.0 in 2 hops06:22:14: 3.3.3.3 / 32 -> 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops06:22:14: 172.12.23.0 / 24 -> 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops06:22:14: 172.12.123.0 / 24 -> 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops06:22:14: RIP: sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9 via Loopback0 (1.1.1.1)06:22:14: 2.2.2.2 / 32 -> 0.0.0.0, metric 3, tag 006:22:14: 3.3.3.3 / 32 -> 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 006:22:14: 172.12.23.0 / 24 -> 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 006:22:14: 172.12.123.0 / 24 -> 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 006:22:14: RIP: sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9 via Serial0 (172.12.123.1)Cisco CCNA certification depends on noticing details like these, and there's no better way to learn these details than by working on real Cisco routers and switches. Whether you're renting rack time online or buying used Cisco routers and switches, real-time debugs and configurations are the way to CCNA certification exam success!Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 , is the owner of The Bryant Advantage, home of over 100 free certification exam tutorials, including Cisco CCNA certification test prep articles. His exclusive Cisco CCNA study guide and Cisco CCNA training is also available!Visit his blog and sign up for Cisco Certification Central, a daily newsletter packed with CCNA, Network+, Security+, A+, and CCNP certification exam practice questions! A free 7-part course, ?How To Pass The CCNA?, is also available, and you can attend an in-person or online CCNA boot camp with The Bryant Advantage!

#ccna #certification #cisco #test #prep #frame #relay #ping #rip #ospf #protocol #broadcast #training
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***The One That Got Away on the Green River*** Fly fishing c unimarter UniMarter
***The One That Got Away on the Green River***

Fly fishing can be a surreal experience mending the soul of any person. That is, until you have to deal with the one that got away!The One That Got AwayI?ve battled the crowds, seen the masses of fish in the crystal clear water, and been skunked by the some of the most educated trout around on the Green River below the Flaming Gorge Dam. On a float trip last fall, I experienced the true meaning of ?The One That Got Away.This fight and escape was like no other that I have experienced in my 10 years of fly fishing. This fish was not just big, but the most aggressive and determined trout I have ever seen!! It was a picture perfect moment; I spot a large rising fish on the left side of the river about 50 down. We row into position. I make the perfect cast and my drift is right on target. Suddenly, the fish comes almost completely out of the water.Now you are probably thinking, big deal, what makes this the ultimate one that got away story? It?s not the size of the fish or even the amount of time the fish was on, it?s all about the angler.Moments before my fly drifted over this fantastic fish, a dive-bombing Osprey snagged him out from under me nose, or more accurately, the nose of my fly! Maybe their eyesight is not quite as good as I thought, because this bird chewed off way more than he should have!It was a perfect snag, both talons sunk into the back of the fish. The bird was able to pull the fish almost completely out of the water with a few extremely labored flaps before he went down. Yep, the Osprey was completely dragged under by the heavy, powerful and extremely determined fish.Amazingly, the Osprey surfaced still clutching the fish and made another attempt to conquer the beast. Dragging the fish half submerged across 10 feet of river, the bird was once again almost completely submerged. Again the Osprey surfaces, well, almost surfaces. Only one wing comes out of the water and flaps frantically. One had to wonder who was having who lunch!Unbelievably, it started to look like the fish was going to roll the Osprey under it. Sure enough, the fish came over the top and was partially in the air while the Osprey was completely submerged under it! The trout made a vicious twisting movement and the Osprey apparently thought oxygen was a better meal. It let go of the trout. The soaking wet bird laboriously returned to a nearby perch for a well-deserved rest.We all stared at each other in complete shock. Now that is one hell of a One That Got Away story!!Rick Chapo is with NomadJournals.com - makers of writing journas for fly fishing. Visit NomadJournalTrips.com to read more articles about fly fishing and the great outdoors.

#Greenriver #trout #flyfishing #fishing #osprey #float #flaminggorgedam #onethatgotaway
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